In cinema, a shot is said subjective shot when the camera replaces the look of a character and shows what he sees, which makes her a subjective camera . The viewer, by the grace of the subjective camera, borrows the look of the character and tentatively identified him 1 . Continue reading
The photokinema (sometimes called photo-Kinema ) is one of many recording systems cinematic sound on disc proposed in the 1920s, developed by Orlando Kellum , mainly for short films, and little used.
Its most famous use is due to director DW Griffith for his film The Street of Dreams ( Dream Street ), made in 1921 . Griffith turns this film previously planned as not to include sound on disk, which he adds after editing two scenes sonorized by this process, he intended for the first screening in New York . The short soundtracks include a song by Ralph Graves and a crowd hubbub in a playroom. Continue reading
Phonoscenes is the name given by the industrialist Leon Gaumont to cinema films synchronized to phonographic recordingsaccording to the method of the Chronophone developed byGeorges Demenÿ , a defector of the “Station physiologique” (laboratory) of Étienne-Jules Marey , who were recorded in 1902 under the direction of Alice Guy , the first female film director . These are among the first examples of musical films , after those of Phono-Cinema-Theater . Continue reading
Designed by Georges Demenÿ , the phonophone was exhibited at the Universal Exhibition. He develops a spiral of images turning, visible through a shutter that was between the light and the barrel. The system gave a long series of images. It was suggested to use the phonograph to integrate the sound. Continue reading
The Phonofilm or DeForest Phonofilm is a sound recording process invented in 1919 by Lee De Forest . In 1927, producer Pat Powers copied the system and named it Cinephone or Powers Cinephone . Continue reading
The Phono-Cinema-Theater is a system of film projection developed in the late xix th century by Henri Lioret of France and Clement Maurice Gratioulet . It consisted of synchronizing the voices of the actors, recorded on a cylinder phonograph , with the projected images. In particular, it allowed the presentation of short films at the 1900 Universal Exhibition in Paris . It was during this exhibition that the first public presentation of films combining images and sound took place. Continue reading
The Pass-By (The Passing) is a filmAmerican directedbyOscar Apfel, released in1912. Continue reading
Pasquali Film (full name: Pasquali & C. sas ) is an Italian film house specializing in the production and distribution of films that was active during the mute period . Continue reading
The Parvo is a camera 35 mm very popular in the first half of the xx th century .
In 1898 André Debrie founded Etablissements André Debrie at 111 rue Saint Maur in Paris . In 1913 it was the birth of the camera film Parvo . The Parvo was the most used 35 mm camera in the world, and it was built in 3 models: the Parvo L for the studio with a focus on frosted glass, and the Parvo E and K for individuals and trips, the Parvo E does not have the possibility to make crossfades. To these 3 models could be added a 24 volt electric motor powered by batteries. The Parvo L model was very popular in the era of silent cinemaand was used by the great directors of the early xx th century as Abel Gance , Leni Riefenstahl , Sergei Eisenstein , Edward Woven 1 . Continue reading
A panoramic or pano in cinematographic jargon 1 is a rotational movement of the camera on an axis, horizontally or vertically, as well as its result. The camera can rotate on a vertical axis, from left to right or vice versa, it is a horizontal panning , identical to the movement of the head when the horizon is traversed by the look (in English ” pan “: ” the camera is panning “). It can switch on the horizontal axis perpendicular to that of the objective, from bottom to top or vice versa, it is a vertical panning, identical to the movement of the head looking at an alpine landscape, from the bottom of the valley to the top of the mountain, and conversely (in English ” tilt “: ” the camera is panning and tilting ” 2 ). Both types of panning can be combined 3 . Continue reading