Studio system

The Studio system was a popular means of film production and distribution in Hollywood from the 1920s to the early 1950s . It is based on: first, the production of films (in the sense of their realization ) in its own premises, employing creative staff often under long-term contract; secondly, the control of distribution through vertical integration including the ownership of distribution networks and the use of block booking .

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His on film

His film is opposed in the history of cinema to the various processes of sound on record , when the sound films were composed of two distinct elements: on the one hand, the film itself as a support for the only photograms (images on the other, a phonographic medium in which various audio elements such as music, sounds, and words were recorded , these processes being based on the simultaneous start of the two reading machines: the projection apparatus and the phonograph to cylinders or discs , orgramophone .

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Its on disk

The name sound on disk ( sound on disk ) is a term coined in the 2000s by film historians ( Serge Bromberg in France, Rick Altman in the United States ) to tell a story hitherto obscured sound film . It applies to various techniques for synchronizing a viewing apparatus movies such as Kinetoscope with The Dickson Experimental Sound Film , first experiment of its kind, due to Thomas Edison or later the cinematograph , the chronophoneand other methods, with an apparatus for reading cylinders or wax discs, such as the phonograph , the gramophone , or the berlinophone, as well as corresponding sound films, such as Gaumont phonoscenes . The coupling of the two devices being approximate at the beginning of the process, and the sessions enamelled of technical incidents which devalued it with the eyes and especially with the ears of the public. The Vitaphone 1 of 1926 solved this problem of the sound on disk, but was swept by the invention of the sound on film ( sound on film ) by optical track then by magnetic stripe. The denomination thus wished to differentiate the two epochs.

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The Saga of Clouzot and cinema

The Saga of Clouzot and cinema – st time is a book published in March 2008, written by Daniel Cut .

If film buffs have kept in memory the names of Henri-Georges Clouzot , director of the Raven , Quai des Orfèvres , Salary of fear or The Truth , become movie classics, most of them do not know that Henri and Étienne Clouzot, respectively art critic and archivist-paleographer, both of whom are uncles of the famous filmmaker, have also marked, in a distinct yet essential and creative form, the early stages of film history.

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Camera look

gaze camera means, during the shooting of a movie, the crossing of the opposite one of the actors, or possibly several, with the optical axis of the apparatus shooting. This crossing is either involuntary, it is then a fault of game and the director must register another catch of this plan; is voluntary and occurs at a special moment in dramaturgy, and its role is then to emphasize this moment. It generates a specific relationship between the character and the future audience, since this look in the optical axis of the shooting, will be later in the optical axis of the projection on the big screen that will be targeted by the optical axis viewing of each viewer. The audience will then have the illusion that the character plunges his eyes into his own.

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Slow motion

The slow motion is a special effect , realized during the shooting or in deferred, and specific to the cinema and the television, which consists in filming a subject by accelerating the rate of shooting (in English overkranking ) so that the movement of the subject is slowed to the projection. In the sound cinema, at the standard projection rate, fixed at 24 frames per second, to slow down the movements of the subject filmed twice, the camera that took the picture must turn at 48 frames per second. For a slow motion of three times, the camera must reach 72 frames per second, and so on.

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Fascist propaganda cinema

The fascist propaganda films is “cinematic instrument” of the regime fascist Italy in the first half of the xx th  century that served to propagate its values and ideals to the masses.

It was an artistic phenomenon that succeeded in creating in some cases valuable cinematographic works. Like the cinema of the Third Reich and the Soviet cinema , the Italian cinema of the fascist period was supported by the state and used as a tool of political propaganda .

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Depth of field (cinema)

When we talk about the depth of field in fictional cinema, it is to designate in a shot the use of actors, as well as props, according to a deep disposition within the field of view of the film. camera. This use is developed in the legible part of the image, between the sharpest zone closest to the camera, and the sharpest zone of distance from it, which forms, in technical terms of photography , the depth of field an objective of a certain focal length , whose diaphragm is more or less open.

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Plan on plan (cinema)

The plan on plan is the result of the end-to-end placement of two shots whose frames are identical or practically identical, on the same subject or on a different subject, whose result at projection is a sensation of jump on the spot, sought by the director (in this case often called “clean cut”) or produced involuntarily and irrelevant. The English technical term is evocative: jump cut .

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The photokinema (sometimes called photo-Kinema ) is one of many recording systems cinematic sound on disc proposed in the 1920s, developed by Orlando Kellum , mainly for short films, and little used.

Its most famous use is due to director DW Griffith for his film The Street of Dreams ( Dream Street ), made in 1921 . Griffith turns this film previously planned as not to include sound on disk, which he adds after editing two scenes sonorized by this process, he intended for the first screening in New York . The short soundtracks include a song by Ralph Graves and a crowd hubbub in a playroom.

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Phonoscenes is the name given by the industrialist Leon Gaumont to cinema films synchronized to phonographic recordingsaccording to the method of the Chronophone developed byGeorges Demenÿ , a defector of the “Station physiologique” (laboratory) of Étienne-Jules Marey , who were recorded in 1902 under the direction of Alice Guy , the first female film director . These are among the first examples of musical films , after those of Phono-Cinema-Theater .

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Phono Cinema Theater

The Phono-Cinema-Theater is a system of film projection developed in the late xix th  century by Henri Lioret of France and Clement Maurice Gratioulet . It consisted of synchronizing the voices of the actors, recorded on a cylinder phonograph , with the projected images. In particular, it allowed the presentation of short films at the 1900 Universal Exhibition in Paris . It was during this exhibition that the first public presentation of films combining images and sound took place.

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The Parvo is a camera 35 mm very popular in the first half of the xx th  century .

In 1898 André Debrie founded Etablissements André Debrie at 111 rue Saint Maur in Paris . In 1913 it was the birth of the camera film Parvo . The Parvo was the most used 35 mm camera in the world, and it was built in 3 models: the Parvo L for the studio with a focus on frosted glass, and the Parvo E and K for individuals and trips, the Parvo E does not have the possibility to make crossfades. To these 3 models could be added a 24 volt electric motor powered by batteries. The Parvo L model was very popular in the era of silent cinemaand was used by the great directors of the early xx th  century as Abel Gance , Leni Riefenstahl , Sergei Eisenstein , Edward Woven 1 .

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Panoramic (cinema)

panoramic or pano in cinematographic jargon 1 is a rotational movement of the camera on an axis, horizontally or vertically, as well as its result. The camera can rotate on a vertical axis, from left to right or vice versa, it is a horizontal panning , identical to the movement of the head when the horizon is traversed by the look (in English ”  pan  “: ”  the camera is panning  “). It can switch on the horizontal axis perpendicular to that of the objective, from bottom to top or vice versa, it is a vertical panning, identical to the movement of the head looking at an alpine landscape, from the bottom of the valley to the top of the mountain, and conversely (in English ”  tilt  “: ”  the camera is panning and tilting  ” 2 ). Both types of panning can be combined 3 .

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New Hollywood

The New Hollywood designates an American cinematic movement from the late 1960s to the early 1980s , which significantly modernizes Hollywood film production . This cinema, inscribed in the counter-culture and influenced by Italian neorealism , European modernity and the Nouvelle Vague française, is characterized by the takeover of directors in the major American studios and the radical representation of previously taboo themes like violence, the corruption of the political powers, the massacre of the Indians or sexuality . The New Hollywood also renews the classic genres of American cinema ( western , film noir ) or “deconstructed” by disregarding the conventions of these.

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Nickelodeon (cinema)

nickelodeon (in English  :  Nickelodeon ) was a kind of small theater district at the beginning of xx th  century in North America . The name comes from the American ”  nickel  ” and the Greek ”  odéon  “, which respectively designate the room of 5 cents (the one that the spectators had to slip in a tourniquet to access the room), and a building intended to listen to the music. Nickelodeons are considered the first network of cinemas, after that ofParlors Kinetoscope of Thomas Edison to higher input costs (a 25-cent coin, called the “quarter”) 1 .

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Birth of the Italian film industry

The birth of the Italian film industry is generally dated between 1903 and 1909 . It culminates in a “golden age” culminating in 1914 .

The Italy is at the time a country in the forefront of cinema, which appears the feature in its current definition.

This article goes back to the beginnings proper to cover the entire period up to the end of the First World War .

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The Movietone process is for the 1927 cinema the first photographic sound recording device on film, along photograms . It was used by the Fox Film Corporation which bought the patents in July 1926. The first film using this method 1 , The Dawn ( Sunrise ), shot in the United States by the German director Friedrich Wilhelm Murnau , was released in 1927 2 .

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Movement of pure cinema

The movement of pure cinema 純 映 画 劇 運動 , Jun’eigageki undō ? ) Is a current of cinematographic criticism and filmmaking of Japan in the 1910s and early 1920s, which advocates what are considered filmmaking more modern and cinematographic. Critics of magazines such as Kinema Record and Kinema Junpo regret that Japanese cinema is too theatrical. They argue that this one presents kabuki and shinpa theater scenesas such, with little purely cinematic creation and without a script written with cinema in mind. Female roles are even played by onnagata . Filmmakers are reproached for making long shots and delegating narration to benshi in movie theaters instead of using devices such as close-ups and editing to visually tell a scene. The novelist Junichiro Tanizaki is a major supporter of the movement 1 . Critics such as Norimasa Kaeriyama finally become directors in order to put into practice their conceptions of cinema. Kaeriyama directs The Glow of Life at Tenkatsu studioin 1918. This film is often considered the first “pure film” but directors like Eizo Tanaka , influenced by shingeki theater , also bring their own innovations in the late 1910s in studios like the Nikkatsu 2 . The evolution towards “pure cinema” is favored by the appearance of new reformist studios like Shōchiku and Taishō Katsuei around 1920. In the mid-1920s, Japanese cinema presented several of the film techniques demanded by the lawyers of the films pure, and the onnagataare replaced by actresses. The movement has a profound influence on how films are made and conceived for decades to come, but this is not a complete success: the benshi remain an integral part of the reality of Japanese film until the 1930s.

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Motion Picture Patents Company

The Motion Picture Patents Company ( MPPC , also known as Edison Trust ) was an American film trust created in 1908 , bringing together many American producers: Edison , Biograph , Vitagraph , Essanay , Lubin , Selig , Kalem , and two French producers located in the United States. States: Pathé Brothers and Star Film . It was directed by Thomas Edison and Jeremiah Kennedy (the representative of the company Biograph) and was nicknamed the trust . He had a monopoly on the sale of dandruff (thanks to George Eastman ) and collected a two-dollar-a-week fee from the cinema operators for the use of the patented projector. Because in 1909, the trust monopolized almost all of American film production 1 .

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The Indian Husband (movie, 1914)

The husband of the Indian ( The Squaw Man ) is a Western US silent directed by Oscar Apfel and Cecil B. DeMille , after the play namesake of Edwin Milton Royle and starringDustin Farnum .

In a context of domination of the Motion Picture Patents Company in the east of the United States, more and more movies are shot in the west to escape its rules. The Indian Husband is the first feature film shot in Hollywood .

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Reverse (cinema)

The reverse is a fixing or rigging obtained once directly to the shooting on photosensitive film, obtained today demand digital image, sometimes performed on the photosensitive film through an optical machine rig (in France, the TruCa ), the effects of which the effect produced on viewing is an inversion, photogram after photogram, of the direction of unfolding of a filmed action.

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The Machine to remake life

La Machine à remaire la vie is a French film by Julien Duvivier (with the collaboration of Henri Lepage ). The unfinished version presented at the end of February 1924 was 3 hours. A second version was presented in 1929 and in 1933 1 .

It is a montage film that traces the evolution of cinema since its invention until 1924. The film is divided into 5 chapters:

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Léonce Perret cinematographer

Léonce Perret cinematographist is a book by Daniel Taillé published in March 2006 ( ISBN  2952612803 ) .

This documentary traces the career of Léonce Perret , an author filmmaker until 1935 , date of his death. This book is a biography and an almost exhaustive list of more than 400 films played, produced or produced by the filmmaker. Moreover this book is the fruit of a historical research work since it is the first complete work about Léonce Perret .

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The Ideal Cinema-Jacques Tati

The Ideal Cinema Hall – Jacques Tati is inaugurated in Aniche on. Its first public meeting took place on November 23, 1905 by the Société du cinématographe automobile 1 , which makes this fixed motion theater in operation the oldest cinema in the world for a paid public session; the only working cinema in the world, under public management.

The complex Claude Berri is composed of the Ideal Cinema – Jacques Tati as well as the room Louis Pol , under public management of the city of Aniche.

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The outfield is the set of elements that do not appear in the frame of an image. This expression designates in particular the part of the scene that does not appear in a plane of a film because it is not intercepted by the field of the optics of the camera , that this field is invariable (fixed plane) or variable (plane where the camera moves ( panning and / or tracking ) and / or zooming ). The out-of-field is not recorded on the film but can be suggested by various elements of the image or sound.

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Hollywood Babylon

Hollywood Babylone is a book by filmmaker Kenneth Anger published in an embryonic version in 1959 by Parisian publisher Jean-Jacques Pauvert 1 . The book was published in its final version in 1975 the United States was surrounded by scandal, the book was quickly banned 2 . It reveals the dark sideof Hollywood celebrities . The full version of 1975 is published in French for the first time in 2013 by Tristram Publishing House 3 , 4 .

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History of Colombian cinema

The history of Colombian cinema lists, studies and interprets all events related to this performing arts in Colombia. In the course of its history, Colombian cinema was not considered a profitable industry, which hindered the continuity of its production. During the first decades of the xx th  century , some companies have tried to feed a constant level of production; but lack of economic support and strong foreign competition have shattered initiatives. Thanks to the creation of the Compañía de Fomento Cinematográfico (FOCINE), some productions have been realized. However, this company was liquidated in the early 1990s. Currently, thanks to the film law approved in 2003, initiatives are reviving around the cinematographic activity, which allows a revival of Colombian cinema, both nationally and internationally.

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History of French animation

The History of French animation begins in the xix th  century when France pioneered in subsequent patents to the invention of the Cinematograph . It mainly earns its spurs in xx th  century when French filmmakers arise in counterpoint hegemonic Disney .

Throughout the century, France sees the establishment of a serious and solid animation industry, but projects sometimes struggle to find funds and must then limit their ambitions because they suffer from disrepute compared to cinema in taken real views. Critical and commercial successes such as The King and the Bird (1980), Kirikou and the Sorceress (1998), The Triplets of Belleville (2003) or Persepolis (2007), however, allow to consolidate the reputation of the genre.

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In a movie, the flashback , or flashback , whose literary equivalent is the analepsis , is script writing process which, within the narrative continuity, introduced an action (in the form of a plane , a sequence , or a scene ) that took place chronologically before the current action.

This process is most often used to provide the viewer with the necessary elements to understand the behavior of the main characters but can also be used for poetic, humorous purposes, etc.

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Lost movie

lost film is a long or a short film of cinema that no longer exists in any archive in any studio or whether we can not find in any private collection. The term “lost film” is also used in the literal sense to refer to films in which certain scenes or sequences have been lost, unedited or whose alternative versions have been misplaced.

Sometimes a copy of a “lost film” is found; these copies are then listed under the name of Lazare films [ref. necessary] . A film that has not been found in its entirety is called a “partially lost film”.

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Erotic movie

An erotic film , also said soft porn or Softporn is a movie finality erotic where sexuality is central. If nudity is present in erotic films, sex is simulated, which is their main difference compared to pornographic films . Erotic films are linked to what is known as ”  soft pornography  ” , while pornographic films are ”  hard porn  ” .

In France, the majority of the films grouped under the name “erotic” are films banned under 16 years.

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Cult movie

cult film is a generally original film that has acquired a highly dedicated group of fans. The term does not refer to a genre in its true sense, nor to an aesthetic quality, but qualifies a film according to the particular way in which it is received by the public or a part of the public. A cult film has a group of admirers, and it’s usually a movie that “either we like or hate”, but these properties are not enough to define it completely.

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Film Booking Offices of America

The Film Booking Offices of America , or FBO , was an American production studio during the era of silent film . This company produced most of the time low budget movies. His trade began with Robertson-Cole, the US division of the British import-export company. Robertson-Cole initiated film production in 1920  ; two years later, they reorganized under the name of the FBO. In 1923 , the studio contracted with Western actor Fred Thomson , who will become one of Hollywood’s most popular actors.

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The Execution of Mary, Queen of Scots

The Execution of Mary, Queen of the Scots is an American film directed by Alfred Clark and filmed by William Heise , released in 1895 . It restores the beheading of Mary Stuart , Queen of Scotland , condemned for high treason to death by her cousin Elizabeth I re of England in 1587 .

The director and author of this film imagines and thus uses for the first time in the cinema a trick (or tricking) that is called camera stop , which will make the happiness of Georges Méliès . The American historian Charles Musser says of this film that he brings “a remarkable innovation to the cinema” 1 .

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History of Spanish animation

The story of the Spanish animation really began with the many small films made between 1908 and 1916 by the Segundo Aragonese pioneer Chomón , a specialist in special effects and puppets – which is often compared to his contemporary Georges Méliès – and who, in fact, divided his time between France and Spain .

However, the first feature film of Spanish animation, Garbancito de la Mancha , is produced only in 1945 by Arturo Moreno , who will give him a sequel in 1948 with Alegres vacaciones . Their producer, José María Blay , will make a third (unfortunate) attempt with Los Sueños de Tay-Pi , a film that has now disappeared.

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Ellipse (cinema)

A figure of literary style, the ellipse has an equivalent of the same name in the writing of film scripts . It consists in suggesting an action by simply showing what happens before and what is observed afterwards. The vast majority of movies use ellipses to avoid exposing actions that bring nothing to narration. This is why we do not see a character going to the toilet or brushing their teeth, unless this completes the characterization of this character. Beyond these ellipses of convenience, linked to moral periods and fashions, others are used to advance the story, to pace it, even to complicate it.

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Eden Theater

The Eden Theater is a theater and cinema, located in La Ciotat ( Bouches-du-Rhône ). Inaugurated as a theater on June 16, 1889, it is, in the world, the oldest theater and theater still in activity. The Eden is classified since February 12, 1996 in annex of the inventory of the historical monuments. It belongs to the city of La Ciotat since 1992 and is part of the heritage of the th Art 1 .

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Cinema economy

The economy of the cinema is the branch of the economy of culture which is interested in the film industry .

The cinema economy mobilizes on the one hand the tools of econometrics for the empirical description of the field, and on the other hand those of the industrial economy to give an account of the organizational logics and relations between the different links of the sector. .

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Domitor is the ”  international association for the development of early cinema research  ” and brings together international researchers specialized in the study of cinema from the beginnings until 1915 .

Founded in October 1985 at the Silent Film Festival in Pordenone , Italy, the Domitor Association institutionalized the growing interest of researchers for this corpus following the Brighton Congress in 1978. The five founders are Stephen Bottomore (UK ), Paolo Cherchi Usai (Italy), André Gaudreault (Quebec), Tom Gunning (United States) and Emmanuelle Toulet (France).

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Filmographic Dictionary of World Literature

The Filmographic Dictionary of World Literature is a three-volume encyclopedic repertory established in 1971 by Johan Daisne . This publication links the films and literary works they adapt.

It lists the titles of films, the original title of the book, the country and the year of production, the names of directors, actors and photographers.

The book is out of print.

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Diagonal of the field

The field of a fixed or moving camera lens is determined on the ground by a trapezoid , the smallest of the parallel bases being the width of the photogram on the film itself (or on the digital sensor) and the most large, the width of the terrain seen by the lens at the edges of the sharpness of the image.

The diagonal of the field is one or the other of the two diagonals of this trapezium.

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Continental Films

The Continental Films , said Continental is a French film production company, active during the Occupation , and funded by German capital. Created in 1940 by Joseph Goebbels for propaganda purposes, however, it is led by Francophile Alfred Greven who will take little account of the political orders received from Berlin. The company produced between 1941 and 1944 about thirty quality feature films, including some like The Hand of the Devil , Au Bonheur des Dames or The Ravenhave become French classics. The Continental will disappear at the Liberation .

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Cinévie is a weekly French consumer magazine, mainly devoted to the life and career of movie stars. Created in 1945, it merges in 1948 with Cinévogue becoming Cinévie-Cinévoguebefore being absorbed the following year by its competitor Cinémonde .

L. de Premio-Réal was the director of the publication and Marc Moallic the artistic director.

Subtitled “illustrated magazine of the cinema”, it notably included critics of films signed by François Chalais and France Roche 1 .

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The cinephile , in its etymological sense, is the love of cinema . The term appeared in France in the 1910s 1 , was published in the 1920s cinematographic magazines 2 and served first to designate a French cultural and intellectual movement that lasted until 1968 . Since the term emancipated to characterize any passion of the cinema, whatever its expression and its organization.

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The Cinematograph (from Ancient Greek κίνημα / Kinema , “movement” and γράφειν / graphein , “write”) is the registered trademark of a device invented in 1895 by the Lumière brothers , both camera to camera and film projector after that Antoine Lumière (the father of Louis and Auguste) discovers, during a trip to Paris, the kinetoscope of Thomas Edison he advises his son to imagine a competitor device 1also incorporating the large screen that could admire the Grevin Museum , during the same trip, attending a projection of luminous Pantomimes the Optical Theater of Émile Reynaud 2 .

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Contemporary Russian Cinema, (r) evolutions

Contemporary Russian Cinema, (r) evolutions is a collective work, whose production was directed by Eugénie Zvonkine and published in November 2017 in France . It presents an in-depth study of contemporary Russian cinema in French, from the 1990s until today, in terms of themes, techniques and formal inventions. But also on the relationship of Russian cinema with the state and with the Soviet past of Russia and the former countries that constituted the USSR . The texts of the book consider the historical and aesthetic aspects of Russian cinema, but also the legal and economic aspects.

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British comedy cinema

The British comedy includes all the comic films produced in the United Kingdom.
The British comedy influences of several centuries from the theater at the end of the xvi th  century , William Shakespeare wrote The Comedy of Errors , based on the farce and misunderstandings. From the xix th  century , the Mime grows by incorporating the Slapstick  ; Charlie Chaplin will notably begin his acting career with Mime . Early in the film, at the beginning of xx th  centuryBurlesqueappears . With the advent of the speaking in 1927 , the comic cinema takes another rise, the laughter being able to be provoked not only by the burlesque of the situations, but also by the dialogues. British comedy is finally diversifying into television from the 1950s.
Among the actors in British comedy, some have a worldwide reputation, such Charlie Chaplin , Monty Python team , Rowan Atkinson …

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Champ-reverse shot

The field-shot is a technique and an aesthetic of shooting in movies, which consists of filming a scene at a given angle , then filming the same scene at an opposite angle, 180 ° from the first, or according to a symmetry axial or a symmetry with respect to a point , or to film separately two actions which, in reality, are confronted (face to face of two armies, or tennis match, for example). In the editing operation , the two shots, field and reverse shot, offer a wide choice of stage continuity solutions. Both plans can indeed be broken up and assembled according to the wishes of thedirector or the dramatic necessities of the story 1 .

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Léon Bouly

Thomas Guillaume Bouly ( 1872 – 1932 ) is a French inventor and creator of the term cinematograph .

Very little is known about him, except that after having built chronophotography devices , he filed on February 12, 1892 the patent of a ”  reversible camera of photography and optics for the analysis and the synthesis of movements, says the “Cynématographe Léon Bouly”. 

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John Jules Barrish

John Jules Barrish is an Irish writer and philosopher born on July 30, 1885 and died March 7, 1939 in Cork , Ireland . Writer, we owe him a work of fiction and two books of philosophical reflection. But his greatest work remains unquestionably his four-volume encyclopedia of cinema called Cinema and Metaphor , in which he will develop theories about the behavior of the viewer in the face of the new cinematic spectacle.

Read moreJohn Jules Barrish

Before 1895 at the cinema


    • 1830  : The British Michael Faraday invents the Faraday wheel which highlights the retinal persistence .
    • 1831  : In his footsteps, the Belgian Joseph Antoine Ferdinand Plateau invents the phenakistiscope to demonstrate the importance of retinal persistence in the perception of movement.
    • 1834  : The British William George Horner invents the zootrope (or magic drum ), an optical toy that uses drawings to recompose a movement of a second.

Read moreBefore 1895 at the cinema


The freeze frame (sometimes referred to as freezing of the image or frozen image , in imitation of English freeze frame or freeze ) is a cinematographic process, obtained in post-production , which consists in duplicating ad libitum a photogram of film, either to highlight this photogram, or to have the public identify the taking of a photographic shot by one of the characters in the film, or to freeze the space and thus give the public a clear sign of the end of the story (identified with the movement).

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Camera stop

The camera stop is one of the most ancient fakes or rigging of cinema. It consists in suspending the shooting during the shooting, thus producing two distinct shots, filmed according to the same frame, representing a scene which differs from one take to the other by one or more details. Putting them end to end makes one think of an instantaneous modification of a magical order. It was first used on August 28, 1895 by a director and a screenwriter of Thomas Edison , William Heise and Alfred Clark, charged with finding new subjects, to turn a reconstruction of the decapitation of Mary Stuart, Queen of Scotland , condemned for treason by his cousin, Queen Elizabeth re of England in 1587 . The film is called The Execution of Mary Stuart ( The Execution of Mary, Queen of Scots ), and takes less than a minute, as all films of the era.

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Aquila Films

Aquila Films is an Italian silent film production and distribution company based in Turin .


The company is founded in 1907 . It produces many crime or mystery films, promoting them in a sensational way, which quickly ensures its success. The company’s production is growing rapidly, from five films in 1907 to sixty-three in 1911 . Aquila Films has established strong relationships with foreign distributors, particularly in Great Britain and France , and as a result has enjoyed significant commercial success in foreign markets. Hard hit by the outbreak of the First World War, which closed many of its profitable export markets, it must cease trading in 1917 1 .

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Roscoe Arbuckle case

The case Roscoe Arbuckle , following the death of the actress Virginia Rappe , in 1921 , is the first of what will be called the great scandals Hollywood. The actor and director Roscoe Arbuckle , at the time at the height of his glory, is accused of the rape and the death of the actress. The press for months seizes the news and gives it such a resonance that the American film industry decides to adopt codes of good conduct to moralize the profession and film production. Despite his acquittal , Roscoe Arbuckle is forbidden to work and this is the brutal end of his career.

Read moreRoscoe Arbuckle case

Blum-Byrnes Agreement

The Blum – Byrnes agreement is a Franco – American agreement signed onby US Secretary of State James F. Byrnes and representatives of the French government, Leon Blum and Jean Monnet , after lengthy negotiations . It liquidates part of the French debt to the United States after the Second World War (two billion dollars ).

The Truman administration even offers a new loan to France on repayment terms considered exceptional. The United States is providing US $ 300 million worth of assistance ( $ 3.5 billion worth in 2012) repayable over 35 years and a $ 650 million bank loan ($ 7.6 billion worth of 2012 bonds).

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The accelerated is a special effect , realized when shooting with a film camera , or postproduction with a shooting machine , and specific to the cinema , which consists in filming a moving subject by decreasing the rate of shooting (in English underkranking ) so that the movement of the subject is accelerated to the projection. In sound cinema, at standard projection rate, fixed at 24 frames or 25 framesper second, to accelerate twice the movement of the subject filmed, it is necessary that the camera which has taken the shooting rotates at 12 frames per second. For an accelerated three times, the camera should shoot at 8 frames per second.

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History of cinema

Origins of cinema

The cinema was born at the end of the xix th  century . If the animation dates back at least to the xvii th  century , with ” magic lantern  “, wait until 1891 to see appearing the first patent for the animation of photographic images and the successful production of a first silver camera . The collective spectacle that will result is born a few years later.

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The Mask and the Feather

The Mask and the Plume is a radio program of France Inter created in 1955 , presented since 1989 by Jérôme Garcin and diffused every Sunday from 20 h 05 to 21 h. This issue is devoted to criticism of the books or to parts theater or at the cinema . Every Sunday, the theme of the show changes, with however a benefit for the cinema to which more hours are devoted. It is the oldest broadcast of the European media landscape still broadcast 1 .

Read moreThe Mask and the Feather


Crossed is a cultural and humorous program about the cinema and the video games diffused by the site of the as well as on the YouTube and Dailymotion platforms . Created by video artists Karim Debbache, Gilles Stella and Jérémy Morvan, it is produced and produced by the Nesblog, a group of video artists they are part of.

Read moreCrossed


Cinéfilms was a radio show, broadcast weekly on France Inter (the show has, over the years, occupied several slots, usually on Saturday 1 ). Created in 1978 under the name Les étoiles de France Inter , it was renamed Les étoiles du cinéma from 1982 to 1995, before being awarded its final title of Cinéfilms , which it bears from 1996 to 2006 2 . André Asseo was the director for the duration of the adventure, with Jean-Claude Loiseau and Laurent Delmas .

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The telecine is the name given to various optical and electronic techniques to convert a movie theater turned on silver film video source. By extension, the term refers to the process of adapting a movie sequence to the chosen digital format. This processing is based on the addition of complementary frames on the still image, which allows the transfer of any silver film ( 8 mm, Super 8 , 9.5 mm , 16 mm , 35 mm , etc.), whatever its projection speed, towards a digital medium.

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Bankable ( Anglicism from the verb to bank ) is a term of cinematographic jargon which means, according to the occurrences, “who brings back money” or “which makes it possible to finance a film on his name”. It does not have exactly the same meaning according to whether we speak of American cinema or French cinema , which is explained by the differences between the financing systems of these cinematographies. This adjective, which initially applies to actors, can also qualify a director or even some elements of a film (history, characters …). Since the mid-1990s, the importance of having generic bankable players would strongly influence the distribution choices of films, both French and American, to the point of creating controversy: the artistic choices of filmmakers would be constrained and, in France, this system would paradoxically increase disproportionately the budgets of movies.

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Seven Little Fortunes

The Seven Little Fortunes ( Chinese  : 七 小 福 Cat Siu Fok ), or The Lucky Seven , sometimes translated into French by the phrases Seven Little Fortunes or Seven Little Prodigies , is a group of martial artists, students in the 1960s of China Drama Academy of the Chinese Theater Academy ( Peking Opera School ) in Hong Kong .

The students were aged 7 to 8, traveling and participating in shows in which they displayed their acrobatic and artistic talents. They were also sent by the school to participate in film shoots. The troupe consisted of 7 to 14 children, but only 7 appeared at the same time at each performance.

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Six Degrees of Kevin Bacon

Six Degrees of Kevin Bacon (“The Six Degrees of Kevin Bacon” in French) is a quiz game based on the concept ofthe small world phenomenonand the assumption that each actor can be connected toKevin Baconvia his roles in six movies or less. The name of the game comes from theplaythat illustrated the principle ofsix degrees of separation(six degrees of separation).

In 2007, Bacon created a charity organization called .

Read moreSix Degrees of Kevin Bacon

Spearmen of space graves

Looters of space graves is the translation of the English game Grave Robbers From Outer Space , a board game created in 1991 by Stephen Tassie . It is edited by Z-Man Games and distributed by The Seventh Circle . It’s a humorous game where everyone makes a Z-series movie and must protect it from other players’ sabotage attempts.

The title of the game is the name originally intended for Ed Wood’s Plan 9 from Outer Space , which has been dubbed “the worst film of all time”.

Read moreSpearmen of space graves

Utopia (cinema)

Utopia is a French network of independent cinemas founded by Anne-Marie Faucon and Michel Malacarnet . It is now established in Avignon , Bordeaux , Montpellier , Saint-Ouen-l’Aumône , Pontoise , Toulouse and Tournefeuille .

Utopia cinemas have three Art and Essay labels  : Young Audiences, Directories and Research and Discovery.

They are founding members of the association Independents Solidaires et Federates .

Read moreUtopia (cinema)

Sundance Institute

The Sundance Institute is an American non-profit organization founded by Robert Redford in 1981 that is involved in the promotion and production of independent cinema worldwide. Based in Park City , Utah, Los Angeles , California, and New York City , she offers financial and creative support to emerging filmmakers or future directors, screenwriters, producers, composers, and more.

Since 1985 Sundance Institute has been organizing the Sundance Film Festival , which has become the leading independent film festival.

Read moreSundance Institute

Jean-Jacques Rousseau (filmmaker)

Jean-Jacques Rousseau , born onin Souvret and died onin Montigny-le-Tilleul , is a Belgian director of independent cinema , self-proclaimed “filmmaker of the absurd” .

Defending a movie is limited budgets, from 2 000 to 2 500  per film, with non-professional actors, it is, with some forty films made, one of the most prolific Belgian filmmakers 1 .

Read moreJean-Jacques Rousseau (filmmaker)

Cinema and video amateurs

The term ”  amateur cinema and video  ” refers to the production of moving images filmed by non-professionals, often for the purpose of recording family memories, travels, etc. There are also works of fiction produced by amateur filmmakers 1 , most often short films .

At the time of cinema on film , specific formats have been developed, as well as material, for amateurs. Later, the arrival of the consumer video facilitated the shooting of moving images and their viewing (on a simple television screen ), and especially transformed this type of cinema by adding the sound that, in film , was a problem and even in general an impossibility, given the addition of a second camera – both shooting and projection – a tape recorder and a synchronizer image / sound, whose handling and price reserved his use to some amateurs enlightened and fortunate. The advent of digitalthen introduced video recording into almost all portable electronic devices; computers , cameras , mobile phones , until the near-universalization of HD today available on various devices.

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The Brady

Brady is a cinema in Paris opened in 1956 1 , located 39 Boulevard de Strasbourg in the 10 th  district . It was frequented by François Truffaut among others , and was bought by Jean-Pierre Mocky in 1994 , who sold it in 2011.

A time called The Brady-Albatros , according to the film of the same name Mocky (1971), it is renovated in 2009 to be transformed into cinema-theater. It has two rooms of 100 and 39 seats.

It is classified Art and Essay .

Read moreThe Brady

Association for independent cinema and its diffusion

The Independent Film Association for its broadcast ( ACID ) is an association of filmmakers defending independent cinema . It supports theatrical release of independent films and works for the meeting between these films, their authors and the public.

The strength of ACID’s work lies in its founding idea: support by filmmakers from other filmmakers, French or foreign. Every year, ACID’s filmmakers accompany about thirty feature films, drama and documentaries, in more than 200 independent theaters and at festivals in France and abroad.

Read moreAssociation for independent cinema and its diffusion

Anthology Film Archives

The Anthology Film Archives is a film library located in New York opened to the public on 30 November 1970 .

The Anthology Film Archives was founded by Jonas Mekas and other filmmakers of the underground experimental film scene .

The goal of this world-renowned institution is the conservation, study and showcasing of independent film heritage produced outside the Hollywood industrial system 1 .

Read moreAnthology Film Archives

Independent cinema

The independent film defines all of cinema produced outside the media conglomerates and claiming some autonomy in relation to methods of production, and political conventions of popular cinema.

By extension, this category may include the amateur film , the experimental cinema , the guerrilla filmmaking and, to some extent, the kind of movies and some national cinemas as Dogme 95 .

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The exit of the Lumière factory in Lyon

The Exit of the Lumière factory in Lyon is a French film directed by Louis Lumière , released in 1895 , which exists in at least three recognized versions, and is one of the 10 films shown at the Salon du Grand Café from.

This book, described not without humor by the film historian Georges Sadoul, as “almost a publicity tape ” 1 has long been considered – and still is – by film historians as having been the first film . Also, the commemoration of the Centenary of the Cinema was organized in France in March 1995 . This dating can be found as much in the Larousse Encyclopedia as in the writings of Michel Faucheux 2 , or in the monumental work of the American historian Charles Musser 3 . But other historians give priority to the year 1891, date of the appearance of the first films produced by Thomas Edison , made by his electrical engineer William Kennedy Laurie Dickson . Georges Sadoul notes that “Dickson’s tapes are, strictly speaking, the first films” 4 , and Laurent Mannoni, chief curator of the Cinémathèque française , states that “between 1891 and 1895, Edison made some sixty- ten films » 5 , while Marie-France Briselance and Jean-Claude Morin do not hesitate to describe the primacy of La Sortie as a chauvinistic lie in most of the film’s stories and recall that the heart of cinema and any audiovisual work is what Edison first named a movie . These authors nonetheless highlight the historical importance of this Exit from the Lumière factory and the fundamental aesthetic contribution of Louis Lumière in the process of creating “animated photographic views” , the word that the Lumière brothers use to designate their impressed reels 6 .

Read moreThe exit of the Lumière factory in Lyon

Scenes of the Klondike Gold Rush

Gold Rush Scenes in the Klondike is an American film directed by Thomas Crahan & Robert K. Bonine , released in 1899 .

This film innovates in the usual course of a “documentary” film (this documentary appellation only appears from 1915) by putting several plans end to end .

Read moreScenes of the Klondike Gold Rush

Sandow (movie, 1894)

Sandow , also known as The Souvenir Strip of the Edison Kinetoscope and also Sandow, the modern Hercules is an American film directed by William Kennedy Laurie Dickson, released in 1894 .


Eugen Sandow , whose real name is Friedrich Wilhelm Mueller, only wearing a little underpants (a daring outfit at that time) is showing off and stretching his muscles, face, profile, back.

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Dream of a fondue fondue

Dream of a fondue fondue ( Dream of a Rarebit Fiend ) is an American film directed by Edwin S. Porter and Wallace McCutcheon , released in 1906 1 .

This is the film adaptation and within seven minutes of the comics of Winsor McCay . The film’s advertisement featured ” special effects never before seen or attempted” 2 .

In 2015, the Library of Congress (Library of Congress) of Washington has selected this film to benefit from a complete restoration, because “of its cultural, historical and aesthetic. » 3

Read moreDream of a fondue fondue

Princess Ali (movie, 1895)

Princess Ali ( Princess Ali ), sometimes named Princess Ali of Cairo , is an American film directed by William Kennedy Laurie Dickson , released in 1895 .

Synopsis or Argument

On the shelf of the first film studio , built by Thomas Edison in Orange, in New Jersey , Laurie Dickson, the first director of movies , records with Kinetograph a short performance of ” belly dancer ” Princess Ali, Member of the troupe of Barnum & Bailey Circus , accompanied by a bendir drummer and a Zorna blower in traditional Berberclothes (Amazigh).

Read morePrincess Ali (movie, 1895)

The Place des Cordeliers in Lyon

The Place des Cordeliers in Lyon is a French filmdirected by Louis Lumière , released in 1895 . This “animated photographic view”, as well as Louis Lumiere’s impressed film reels, is one of the 10 films shown at the Salon du Grand Café from.


The famous Place des Cordeliers in Lyon , its cars, pedestrians.

Read moreThe Place des Cordeliers in Lyon

Part of discarded

Part of apart is one of the first films made by Louis Lumière, released in 1896 .


Sitting at a garden table, two men (the conjurer Félicien Trewey , friend of the Lumière brothers) before a third man, are a part of spread , a deck of cards (32 cards) fashionable in the xix th century. A server eyeing the game, voluble and enthusiastic. He applauds the winner who, against all odds, is not the professional card handler. The three men clink to their friendship.

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Monkeyshines, No. 1

Monkeyshines, No. 1 (followed by Monkeyshines, No. 2 and Monkeyshines, No. 3 ) is an American film essay, made by William KL Dickson and William Heise for Thomas Edison’s labs, in1889 or 1890 .

These tests are recorded from the horizontal cylinder Kinetic , an archaic version of the first film camera . It is an adaptation of the cylinder phonograph invented Thomas Edison. On a glass cylinder, rotating on its axis, a type of recorder chronophotography : objective and movable disk obturator takes frames following each other in the manner of the groove of the gramophone spiral on a supine photosensitive emulsion on the cylinder. After the shooting, the negative on its glass support is immersed in the development products (developer and fixer). A drawcontact- type pull is done, which gives a positive photographic sheet. This one is cut and assembled in a long ribbon where appear the various positions of the target personage. This tape can be examined frame by frame but can not be seen in motion or projected (opaque and fragile paper, and lack of the appropriate machine). The results are disappointing for the Edison team. The invention of the flexible, transparent and resistant film will make it possible to direct the research towards another process, and to succeed to record the first film of the cinema: Dickson Greeting , where one can contemplate the character and his precise gestures.

Read moreMonkeyshines, No. 1

The devil’s mansion

The Manor of the Devil is a short French fantasy film, written and directed in 1896 by Georges Méliès .


The scene is in a castle. A giant bat arrives and turns into Mephistopheles. This one shows a big cauldron and a hunchback monster. From this cauldron, he brings up a woman and all kinds of demonic creatures. Then Mephistopheles intends to come and make everything disappear, including him. Two men (probably explorers) arrive in the room and begin to talk. The hunchbacked monster appears, holding a fork. He is invisible to them and plays tricks on them. One of the men gets scared and runs away. The other tries to sit, but his seat moves to the other side of the room. He tries again, and again, in vain, and this time, a skeleton appears on the seat. The man strikes him with his sword, the skeleton turns into a bat. He grabs himself but she becomes …

Read moreThe devil’s mansion

Grandma’s Loupe

Magnifier Grandma ( Grandma’s Reading Glass ), also entitled The Granny reading glasses , is a British film directed by George Albert Smith in 1900 .

In this film, George Albert Smith uses for the first time in the cinema the technical division in several planes to describe the same action, including a succession of close-ups , which are, another important discovery, the first subjective shots of the history of cinema .

George Albert Smith is part of the Brighton School, which forms the basis of much of the language of film.

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Let me dream again

Let me dream again ( Let Me Dream Again ) is a British film directed by George Albert Smith , released in 1900 .


Dream disenchanted: An old man is having a good time sitting next to a younger woman. Then the image becomes blurred and the old man wakes up next to his old woman who smudges under the caresses of her husband, addressed to the woman of his dream. The disappointed husband and the scandalized woman turn their backs to sleep again.

Read moreLet me dream again

The Kiss (movie, 1896)

The Kiss ( Le Baiser ) is an American film directed by William Heise , released in 1896 .

It is considered the first representation of a kiss in the cinema. The scandal was enormous, the censored film and the leagues of virtue took advantage, on the other side of the Atlantic, to impose a first draft of a moral code for filmmakers and producers 1 . The Union of Christian Women for Temperance launched a national campaign against the kiss on the mouth, deeming it degrading and unhygienic 2 .

Read moreThe Kiss (movie, 1896)

Man with a rubber head

The Man with the rubber head is a French film directed by Georges Méliès , released in 1901 .


In a laboratory, a man in a white coat sets a cut-off head on a table that looks like his own like two drops of water. Connecting it to a rubber hose, itself connected to a bellows, in a few strokes, it inflates and deflate. He calls his assistant to handle the inflatable head; it makes it swell so much that in the end it explodes.

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History of a crime (movie, 1901)

History of a Crime (sometimes called The Story of a Crime 1 ) is a French film directed by Ferdinand Zecca , released in 1901 .


Entering the night in a bank, a burglar stabs the cashier-guardian. He is arrested in the company of courtesans as he squanders the stolen money. At the morgue, in front of the corpse of the cashier, he falls on his knees and asks for forgiveness. In his cell, he sleeps on a bedstead and three important memories of his life appear successively on the wall: 1 / Still child, his mother accompanies him in the paternal carpentry where his father embraces him affectionately. 2 / Teenager, apprentice, he takes a seat at the family table after kissing his parents. 3 / Adult, he loses his salary in a café by playing cards with a cheater. Furious at his luck, he sees a man come in ordering a liquor, showing off to pay for a well stocked purse. The future assassin follows suit when he leaves. The flashback fades on the wall. The door of the cell then opens, leaving a priest and five men in frock-coat, looking stern, waking the prisoner and going out with him. He is tied up, his hair shaved on his neck, his shirt open, exhorted by the priest who brandishes a crucifix. Taken to a courtyard where the woods of the guillotine stand, he is executed2 .

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Faneurs is a French filmdirected by Louis Lumière , released in 1897 . “Louis Lumière knew instinctively that the most logical and elegant way of filming a moving vehicle, or a galloping horse, or a regiment of proud soldiers marching past, or a team of tedders handling the rake, was to cautiously stand on the side and frame the three-quarter subject, inscribing its displacement in a “vanishing line” 1 , which is called the diagonal of the field .

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The Sneeze of Fred Ott

The Sneezing Fred Ott ( Edison Kinetoscopic Record of a Sneeze or Fred Ott’s Sneeze ) is a film American directed in 1894 by William KL Dickson , with Fred Ott .

Produced by the Edison Manufacturing Company (also named in 1890: Studios Edison ), under the direction of William KL Dickson , the first director in history and one of the great pioneers of cinema , the film was shot in inside the Black Maria at Orange in New Jersey , who was the first movie studio to be built.

Read moreThe Sneeze of Fred Ott

Retracting a lady at the Robert-Houdin theater

Retreating a lady at the Robert-Houdin theater , made in 1896 by Georges Méliès , is the first film in the history of French cinema using special effects . This film is a transposition of the most famous illusion buatier de kolta called The Vanishing Lady ( La Femme evanescent ), the most imitated scene feat in the years 1880 1 . It was shot in the very premises of the Robert-Houdin theater, owned by Méliès.

Read moreRetracting a lady at the Robert-Houdin theater

The landing of the photography congress in Lyon

The landing of the congress of photography in Lyon is a French filmdirected by Louis Lumière on June 11, 1895 in Neuville-sur-Saone , during the debarkation of the delegates, released in 1895 . This “animated photographic view”, as well as the Lumière brothers named their bobineaux, is one of the 10 films shown at the Salon Salon du Grand Café from.

Read moreThe landing of the photography congress in Lyon

What we see in a telescope

What we see in a telescope is a British film by George Albert Smith , made in 1900 .

In this movie, George Albert Smith makes the first attempt to use a close-up inside a larger shot (half-way shot) to explain what a voyeur spies. A process of shooting and editing that he takes again the same year in a fundamental film of the history of the language of the cinema: The magnifying glass of grandma .

Read moreWhat we see in a telescope

Carmencita (movie)

Carmencita is an American film , directed by William Kennedy Laurie Dickson, released in 1894.


The dancer Carmencita , twirling, performs traditional fandango figures .

Technical sheet

    • Original title: Carmencita
    • Director: William KL Dickson
    • Image: William Heise
    • Duration: 29 s
    • Genre: Music hall
    • Format: 35 mm double set of four rectangular side perforations Edison by frame, black and white, silent
    • Production: Edison Manufacturing Company
    • Release date: 1894

Read moreCarmencita (movie)

Bucking Broncho (movie, 1894)

Bucking Broncho is an American film directed by William Kennedy Laurie Dickson , released in 1894 . Bucking means: making leaps of sheep. Mexicans call Broncho the untamed horses.

This film is one of the first shots with the first vertical kinetic film camera, the kinetograph , 35 mm wide, two pairs of four perforations per frame 1 , designed by Dickson and William Heise from Thomas’s sketches Edison and prototype in which the film of 19 mm wide horizontal linear scrolling, six perforations at the bottom of the frame, with circular images, 12 mm in diameter, last souvenir of optical toys .

Read moreBucking Broncho (movie, 1894)

Blacksmith Scene

Blacksmith Scene (also known as the Blacksmith Scene # 1 and Blacksmithing Scene ) is a silent film American of less than a minute, directed by William Kennedy Dickson in1893 .

This film (the English word film is used for the first time in the modern sense by Thomas Edison), shot with the Kinetographe , the first camera in the history of cinema, is one of the first films publicly presented thanks to the Kinétoscope , machine individual viewing by eyecup. In 1995 , he was added to the US National Film Registry’s list of official repairs and preservation of historically important films by the Library of Congress in Washington .

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Barber Shop

Barber Shop is an American film directed by William Kennedy Laurie Dickson , released in 1894.

This film is a first shot with the first camera cinema vertical linear scrolling, Kinetograph , size 35 mm wide, with two pairs of four perforations per frame , designed by Dickson from sketches Edison and the first model that unrolled the film 19 mm wide, six perforations at the bottom of the frame, scrolling horizontally.

Read moreBarber Shop

Before 1895 at the cinema


    • 1830 : The British Michael Faraday invents the Faraday wheel which highlights the retinal persistence .
    • 1831 : In his footsteps, the Belgian Joseph Antoine Ferdinand Plateau invents the phenakistiscope to demonstrate the importance of retinal persistence in the perception of movement.
    • 1834 : The British William George Horner invents the zootrope (or magic drum ), an optical toy that uses drawings to recompose a movement of a second.

Read moreBefore 1895 at the cinema

Around a cabin

Around a cabin is a cartoon directed by Émile Reynaud , released in 1894 . This footage uses the process of optical theater , allowing Reynaud to project a film painted by hand in color while the Cinematograph of the Lumière brothers did not exist yet. The screenings are accompanied on the piano by music specially written by the composerGaston Paulin . Silver rods placed on the flexible belt at key moments actuate a buzzer which, using an electromagnet , produces, for example, the noise of the cabin door.

This film is part of the second program of Luminous Pantomimes, which screenings took place at the Musée Grévin’s Cabinet Fantastique , from December 1894 to March 1900 1 .

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Attack on a mission in China

Attack on a mission in China is a British film directed by James Williamson , released in 1900 .

In this film, James Williamson uses for the first time in the cinema the field-counter-field language process . James Williamson is part of the Brighton School .

“In 1900 , George Albert Smith was still with James Williamson at the forefront of film art 1

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Sprinkler watered

The sprinkler watered 1 , initially entitled The Gardener and the little mischievous then Sprinkler and watered , is a film directed by Louis Lumière . It is shown for the first time on September 21, 1895 , in La Ciotat , during a private screening, and then put on the screen paid screenings organized by the Lumière brothers in Paris in the Salon Indian Grand Cafe Boulevard des Capucines, from December 28, 1895 , first historical projection of animated photographic films.

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Arrival of a train in La Ciotat station

The arrival of a train at La Ciotat station , or The Arrival of a train at La Ciotat , is aFrench film directed by Louis Lumière in 1895 , released in.

Contrary to popular belief, the film is not in the program of the 10 films composing the projection of , in the Indian Salon of the Grand Café , Place de l’Opéra in Paris 1 . On the other hand, it has often been said that the first viewers to see the film were frightened by the arrival of the train on the screen and even fled the room, but this claim is now considered part of the true myth that represents this film.

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Annie Oakley shooting at the Winchester

Annie Oakley, shooting at the Winchester ( Annie Oakley shooting glass balls ) is anAmerican film directedbyWilliam Kennedy Laurie Dickson, released in1894.

Synopsis or Argument

Shooting champion Annie Oakley , invited at 24 by Thomas Edison in the first movie studio , Black Maria , in Orange, New Jersey , performs a quick sports shooting demonstration on glass balls hung on a rack. target, then seize another weapon, the first being unloaded, to shoot “pigeons” of clay.

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You talkin ‘to me?

” You talkin ‘to me?  “ , Usually translated into French by”  C’est à moi, what are you talking about?  “Is a famous line uttered by Robert De Niro in the movie Taxi Driver by Martin Scorsese released in 1976.

The replica has permanently implanted in popular culture and is ranked 10 th in the ranking of the hundred most famous lines of American cinema ( AFI’s 100 Years … 100 Movie Quotes ). She contributed a lot to the popularity of Robert De Niro.

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Well … nobody’s perfect!

“Well … nobody’s perfect! “ ( Well … nobody’s perfect! ) Is a famous line uttered by Joe E. Brown in the film Some Like It Hot by Billy Wilder released in 1959.

This final reply is permanently implanted in American popular culture and is ranked 48 th in the ranking of the hundred most famous lines of American cinema ( AFI’s 100 Years … 100 Movie Quotes ) .

Read moreWell … nobody’s perfect!

You have beautiful eyes, you know.

“You have beautiful eyes, you know” is a famousreplicaaddressed byJean GabintoMichèle Morganin the film The Quai des Mist ofMarcel Carné,released in 1938.


The dialogue, written by Jacques Prévert , takes place between Jean ( Jean Gabin , a military deserter) and Nelly ( Michèle Morgan , the girl under guardianship).

Jean: “You have beautiful eyes, you know. ”
Nelly: ” Kiss me. ( He kisses her )
Jean: “Nelly! ”
Nelly: ” Kiss me again 1 . “

Read moreYou have beautiful eyes, you know.

Lulu la Nantes

Lulu la Nantaise is the name of a fictional character who became a cult when he is mentioned only by his name in two sentences dialogues written by Michel Audiard in the kitchen scene of the film Les Tontons flingueurs by Georges Lautner ( 1963).

The name of this character enjoys a lively popularity in the French public, to the point that we can consider it as a ” meme “. Indeed, over time, the considerable and lasting success of the film, and especially that of this scene with cult replicas , have made the name of “Lulu la Nantaise” extremely popular to the point that it has been taken over for many different creations : title of a satirical literary prize 1 , 2 , a children’s clothing brand 3 , graphic designers’ studios, advertising agencies, restaurants, bistros, tea rooms ( Montauban , Biarritz …), a satirical newspaper from Nantes La Lettre à Lulu, and, of course, blog titles, web nicknames, etc.

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I am Spartacus!

“I am Spartacus! “ (Or” I’m Spartacus! “In the original version) is a phrase from the film Spartacus by Stanley Kubrick ( 1960 ). It is pronounced by Kirk Douglas who embodies the famous leader who unleashed the Punic war .

One of the famous scenes of the film is the capture of slaves who are asked which of them is Spartacus in exchange for their freedom. Instead, each of them confesses to being Spartacus to share his destiny. A similar scene or event is sometimes called a Spartacus moment in reference to this popular scene. It was sometimes misinterpreted as a historical fact, notably by the Scottish politician George Galloway , who identifies Spartacus as his hero.

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It’s Good to Be the King Rap

It’s Good to Be the King Rap (also known as It’s Good to Be the King ) is a song written byMel BrooksandPete Wingfieldand performed byMel Brooks, released as a single in1981. The title of the song comes from thefetish sentenceof the movie The Mad History of the World , in which Brooks says it three times.

The single encounter some success in the US , but also in the world, including France , where it ranks second in the charts at the time and has sold 375,000 copies 3 .

The rap group Alliance Ethnik has sampled the first part for its title Respect 4 .

Read moreIt’s Good to Be the King Rap

I’ll be back

I’ll be back ( ” I shall return “) is acult sentenceusually associated with theactor American Arnold Schwarzenegger, who used it in themovieofscience fiction Terminator (1984). In theoriginalscript, the replica was writtenI will be backwithout the contraction 1 , 2 .

Schwarzenegger uses the same sentence (or a variant) in many of his subsequent films 3 . He also used the reply in public speeches held during his duties as Governor of California 4 , 5 .

The This sentence is in 37 th position on the list AFI’s 100 Years … 100 Movie Quotes of the American Film Institute 6 .

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Hasta the vista, baby

Hasta the vista , baby is acult phraseassociated with the character played byArnold Schwarzeneggerin thesci-fi movie Terminator 2: The Last Judgment .


The phrase ” Hasta la vista ” is a Spanish phrase that can be translated literally by goodbye or revelation .

The phrase associated with the word baby in the expression Hasta la vista , baby , is used in Looking for a New Love by Jody Watley , popular success in 1987 1 . It is also used in 1988 in the song Wild Thing  (en) of Tone Loc .

Its use in Terminator 2: The Last Judgment turned it into a cult phrase and immortalized it around the world.

This phrase was used as electoral argument by Arnold Schwarzenegger during his election campaign, on his election as Governor of the State of California 2 .

Read moreHasta the vista, baby

Frankly, my dear, it’s the least of my worries

Frankly, my dear, I do not give a damn ” (in original : Frankly, my dear, I do not give a damn ) is the final reply of Rhett Butler ( Clark Gable ) to Scarlett O’Hara ( Vivien Leigh ) in the film Gone with the wind from 1939 .

This replica was voted biggest replica of the American cinema in 2005 , whereas it could have been censored during the filming by the code Hays . A cult favorite , this quote has been pastiched and parodied into a number of popular entertainments, including the animated series The Simpsons or the shows That ’70s Show and The Muppet Show .

Read moreFrankly, my dear, it’s the least of my worries


Oh!  “Is a recurrent expression of Homer Simpson in the original and Quebec versions of the animated series The Simpsons , also pronounced” T’oh!  In the French version.

Homer uses this onomatopoeia after having committed a blunder or an idiocy, when he is injured or when he is surprised. Other characters may use this phrase, such as Bart , Lisa, or the parents of Homer, Mona, and Abraham .

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Atmosphere! Atmosphere! Do I have a mouth of atmosphere?

“Atmosphere! Atmosphere! Do I have a mouth of atmosphere? “ Is a famous replica called by Arletty in the film Hôtel du Nord from Marcel Carne released in 1938. This replica is permanently implanted in popular culture, thanks to the special intonation, emblematic of Parisian banter , given by actress to this sentence.


The dialogue, written by Henri Jeanson , takes place between Raymonde ( Arletty , a prostitute) and Edmond ( Louis Jouvet his protector ). They are on a lock that spans the Canal Saint-Martin , not far from the Hotel du Nord that we see. Edmond wants to go fishing in La Varenne and complains Raymonde he finds too sticky , she wants him to go with her to Toulon .

Read moreAtmosphere! Atmosphere! Do I have a mouth of atmosphere?

AFI’s 100 Years … 100 Movie Quotes

The American Film Institute has compiled a list of the 100 Best Replicas of American Cinema ( 100 Years … 100 Movie Quotes ), which was first released in 2005 on CBS , after a jury of 1,500 people.

The replicas are originally in English, will be treated here the official French versions of these replicas when they exist.

Read moreAFI’s 100 Years … 100 Movie Quotes

Replica worship

cult replica is a famous and popular phrase from a fictional work , which is often cited, becoming cult .

The cult reply can be a favorite phrase if it is used more than once by its source. In general, a cult film often gives the opportunity to have cult replicas.

Sociological impact

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These replicas are the source of a sociological phenomenon of fashion, many people taking replicas, and sometimes divert them mainly in the field of humor and advertising [ref. necessary] .

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Vocabulary of cinema

The term cinema vocabulary refers to the means used by filmmakers to convey their message. It is not a lexicon on the cinema, for that, to see

  • Film technique and grammar
  • Wikipedia: Project / Cinema

Just as the writer has words to express his thoughts, the director has a “vocabulary”. On the other hand, we must understand that cinema is not a language, in the sense that we must not believe that an element of cinematographic language necessarily has the same meaning in all contexts. On the other hand, certain recurrent practices have created certain conventions. The use of the term “vocabulary” is thus rather metaphorical.

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