Studio system

The Studio system was a popular means of film production and distribution in Hollywood from the 1920s to the early 1950s . It is based on: first, the production of films (in the sense of their realization ) in its own premises, employing creative staff often under long-term contract; secondly, the control of distribution through vertical integration including the ownership of distribution networks and the use of block booking .

Read moreStudio system

His on film

His film is opposed in the history of cinema to the various processes of sound on record , when the sound films were composed of two distinct elements: on the one hand, the film itself as a support for the only photograms (images on the other, a phonographic medium in which various audio elements such as music, sounds, and words were recorded , these processes being based on the simultaneous start of the two reading machines: the projection apparatus and the phonograph to cylinders or discs , orgramophone .

Read moreHis on film

Its on disk

The name sound on disk ( sound on disk ) is a term coined in the 2000s by film historians ( Serge Bromberg in France, Rick Altman in the United States ) to tell a story hitherto obscured sound film . It applies to various techniques for synchronizing a viewing apparatus movies such as Kinetoscope with The Dickson Experimental Sound Film , first experiment of its kind, due to Thomas Edison or later the cinematograph , the chronophoneand other methods, with an apparatus for reading cylinders or wax discs, such as the phonograph , the gramophone , or the berlinophone, as well as corresponding sound films, such as Gaumont phonoscenes . The coupling of the two devices being approximate at the beginning of the process, and the sessions enamelled of technical incidents which devalued it with the eyes and especially with the ears of the public. The Vitaphone 1 of 1926 solved this problem of the sound on disk, but was swept by the invention of the sound on film ( sound on film ) by optical track then by magnetic stripe. The denomination thus wished to differentiate the two epochs.

Read moreIts on disk

The Saga of Clouzot and cinema

The Saga of Clouzot and cinema – st time is a book published in March 2008, written by Daniel Cut .

If film buffs have kept in memory the names of Henri-Georges Clouzot , director of the Raven , Quai des Orfèvres , Salary of fear or The Truth , become movie classics, most of them do not know that Henri and Étienne Clouzot, respectively art critic and archivist-paleographer, both of whom are uncles of the famous filmmaker, have also marked, in a distinct yet essential and creative form, the early stages of film history.

Read moreThe Saga of Clouzot and cinema

Camera look

gaze camera means, during the shooting of a movie, the crossing of the opposite one of the actors, or possibly several, with the optical axis of the apparatus shooting. This crossing is either involuntary, it is then a fault of game and the director must register another catch of this plan; is voluntary and occurs at a special moment in dramaturgy, and its role is then to emphasize this moment. It generates a specific relationship between the character and the future audience, since this look in the optical axis of the shooting, will be later in the optical axis of the projection on the big screen that will be targeted by the optical axis viewing of each viewer. The audience will then have the illusion that the character plunges his eyes into his own.

Read moreCamera look

Slow motion

The slow motion is a special effect , realized during the shooting or in deferred, and specific to the cinema and the television, which consists in filming a subject by accelerating the rate of shooting (in English overkranking ) so that the movement of the subject is slowed to the projection. In the sound cinema, at the standard projection rate, fixed at 24 frames per second, to slow down the movements of the subject filmed twice, the camera that took the picture must turn at 48 frames per second. For a slow motion of three times, the camera must reach 72 frames per second, and so on.

Read moreSlow motion

Fascist propaganda cinema

The fascist propaganda films is “cinematic instrument” of the regime fascist Italy in the first half of the xx th  century that served to propagate its values and ideals to the masses.

It was an artistic phenomenon that succeeded in creating in some cases valuable cinematographic works. Like the cinema of the Third Reich and the Soviet cinema , the Italian cinema of the fascist period was supported by the state and used as a tool of political propaganda .

Read moreFascist propaganda cinema

Depth of field (cinema)

When we talk about the depth of field in fictional cinema, it is to designate in a shot the use of actors, as well as props, according to a deep disposition within the field of view of the film. camera. This use is developed in the legible part of the image, between the sharpest zone closest to the camera, and the sharpest zone of distance from it, which forms, in technical terms of photography , the depth of field an objective of a certain focal length , whose diaphragm is more or less open.

Read moreDepth of field (cinema)

Plan on plan (cinema)

The plan on plan is the result of the end-to-end placement of two shots whose frames are identical or practically identical, on the same subject or on a different subject, whose result at projection is a sensation of jump on the spot, sought by the director (in this case often called “clean cut”) or produced involuntarily and irrelevant. The English technical term is evocative: jump cut .

Read morePlan on plan (cinema)


The photokinema (sometimes called photo-Kinema ) is one of many recording systems cinematic sound on disc proposed in the 1920s, developed by Orlando Kellum , mainly for short films, and little used.

Its most famous use is due to director DW Griffith for his film The Street of Dreams ( Dream Street ), made in 1921 . Griffith turns this film previously planned as not to include sound on disk, which he adds after editing two scenes sonorized by this process, he intended for the first screening in New York . The short soundtracks include a song by Ralph Graves and a crowd hubbub in a playroom.

Read morephotokinema


Phonoscenes is the name given by the industrialist Leon Gaumont to cinema films synchronized to phonographic recordingsaccording to the method of the Chronophone developed byGeorges Demenÿ , a defector of the “Station physiologique” (laboratory) of Étienne-Jules Marey , who were recorded in 1902 under the direction of Alice Guy , the first female film director . These are among the first examples of musical films , after those of Phono-Cinema-Theater .

Read morephonoscène

Phono Cinema Theater

The Phono-Cinema-Theater is a system of film projection developed in the late xix th  century by Henri Lioret of France and Clement Maurice Gratioulet . It consisted of synchronizing the voices of the actors, recorded on a cylinder phonograph , with the projected images. In particular, it allowed the presentation of short films at the 1900 Universal Exhibition in Paris . It was during this exhibition that the first public presentation of films combining images and sound took place.

Read morePhono Cinema Theater


The Parvo is a camera 35 mm very popular in the first half of the xx th  century .

In 1898 André Debrie founded Etablissements André Debrie at 111 rue Saint Maur in Paris . In 1913 it was the birth of the camera film Parvo . The Parvo was the most used 35 mm camera in the world, and it was built in 3 models: the Parvo L for the studio with a focus on frosted glass, and the Parvo E and K for individuals and trips, the Parvo E does not have the possibility to make crossfades. To these 3 models could be added a 24 volt electric motor powered by batteries. The Parvo L model was very popular in the era of silent cinemaand was used by the great directors of the early xx th  century as Abel Gance , Leni Riefenstahl , Sergei Eisenstein , Edward Woven 1 .

Read moreParvo

Panoramic (cinema)

panoramic or pano in cinematographic jargon 1 is a rotational movement of the camera on an axis, horizontally or vertically, as well as its result. The camera can rotate on a vertical axis, from left to right or vice versa, it is a horizontal panning , identical to the movement of the head when the horizon is traversed by the look (in English ”  pan  “: ”  the camera is panning  “). It can switch on the horizontal axis perpendicular to that of the objective, from bottom to top or vice versa, it is a vertical panning, identical to the movement of the head looking at an alpine landscape, from the bottom of the valley to the top of the mountain, and conversely (in English ”  tilt  “: ”  the camera is panning and tilting  ” 2 ). Both types of panning can be combined 3 .

Read morePanoramic (cinema)

New Hollywood

The New Hollywood designates an American cinematic movement from the late 1960s to the early 1980s , which significantly modernizes Hollywood film production . This cinema, inscribed in the counter-culture and influenced by Italian neorealism , European modernity and the Nouvelle Vague française, is characterized by the takeover of directors in the major American studios and the radical representation of previously taboo themes like violence, the corruption of the political powers, the massacre of the Indians or sexuality . The New Hollywood also renews the classic genres of American cinema ( western , film noir ) or “deconstructed” by disregarding the conventions of these.

Read moreNew Hollywood

Nickelodeon (cinema)

nickelodeon (in English  :  Nickelodeon ) was a kind of small theater district at the beginning of xx th  century in North America . The name comes from the American ”  nickel  ” and the Greek ”  odéon  “, which respectively designate the room of 5 cents (the one that the spectators had to slip in a tourniquet to access the room), and a building intended to listen to the music. Nickelodeons are considered the first network of cinemas, after that ofParlors Kinetoscope of Thomas Edison to higher input costs (a 25-cent coin, called the “quarter”) 1 .

Read moreNickelodeon (cinema)

Birth of the Italian film industry

The birth of the Italian film industry is generally dated between 1903 and 1909 . It culminates in a “golden age” culminating in 1914 .

The Italy is at the time a country in the forefront of cinema, which appears the feature in its current definition.

This article goes back to the beginnings proper to cover the entire period up to the end of the First World War .

Read moreBirth of the Italian film industry


The Movietone process is for the 1927 cinema the first photographic sound recording device on film, along photograms . It was used by the Fox Film Corporation which bought the patents in July 1926. The first film using this method 1 , The Dawn ( Sunrise ), shot in the United States by the German director Friedrich Wilhelm Murnau , was released in 1927 2 .

Read moreMovietone

Movement of pure cinema

The movement of pure cinema 純 映 画 劇 運動 , Jun’eigageki undō ? ) Is a current of cinematographic criticism and filmmaking of Japan in the 1910s and early 1920s, which advocates what are considered filmmaking more modern and cinematographic. Critics of magazines such as Kinema Record and Kinema Junpo regret that Japanese cinema is too theatrical. They argue that this one presents kabuki and shinpa theater scenesas such, with little purely cinematic creation and without a script written with cinema in mind. Female roles are even played by onnagata . Filmmakers are reproached for making long shots and delegating narration to benshi in movie theaters instead of using devices such as close-ups and editing to visually tell a scene. The novelist Junichiro Tanizaki is a major supporter of the movement 1 . Critics such as Norimasa Kaeriyama finally become directors in order to put into practice their conceptions of cinema. Kaeriyama directs The Glow of Life at Tenkatsu studioin 1918. This film is often considered the first “pure film” but directors like Eizo Tanaka , influenced by shingeki theater , also bring their own innovations in the late 1910s in studios like the Nikkatsu 2 . The evolution towards “pure cinema” is favored by the appearance of new reformist studios like Shōchiku and Taishō Katsuei around 1920. In the mid-1920s, Japanese cinema presented several of the film techniques demanded by the lawyers of the films pure, and the onnagataare replaced by actresses. The movement has a profound influence on how films are made and conceived for decades to come, but this is not a complete success: the benshi remain an integral part of the reality of Japanese film until the 1930s.

Read moreMovement of pure cinema

Motion Picture Patents Company

The Motion Picture Patents Company ( MPPC , also known as Edison Trust ) was an American film trust created in 1908 , bringing together many American producers: Edison , Biograph , Vitagraph , Essanay , Lubin , Selig , Kalem , and two French producers located in the United States. States: Pathé Brothers and Star Film . It was directed by Thomas Edison and Jeremiah Kennedy (the representative of the company Biograph) and was nicknamed the trust . He had a monopoly on the sale of dandruff (thanks to George Eastman ) and collected a two-dollar-a-week fee from the cinema operators for the use of the patented projector. Because in 1909, the trust monopolized almost all of American film production 1 .

Read moreMotion Picture Patents Company

The Indian Husband (movie, 1914)

The husband of the Indian ( The Squaw Man ) is a Western US silent directed by Oscar Apfel and Cecil B. DeMille , after the play namesake of Edwin Milton Royle and starringDustin Farnum .

In a context of domination of the Motion Picture Patents Company in the east of the United States, more and more movies are shot in the west to escape its rules. The Indian Husband is the first feature film shot in Hollywood .

Read moreThe Indian Husband (movie, 1914)

Reverse (cinema)

The reverse is a fixing or rigging obtained once directly to the shooting on photosensitive film, obtained today demand digital image, sometimes performed on the photosensitive film through an optical machine rig (in France, the TruCa ), the effects of which the effect produced on viewing is an inversion, photogram after photogram, of the direction of unfolding of a filmed action.

Read moreReverse (cinema)

The Machine to remake life

La Machine à remaire la vie is a French film by Julien Duvivier (with the collaboration of Henri Lepage ). The unfinished version presented at the end of February 1924 was 3 hours. A second version was presented in 1929 and in 1933 1 .

It is a montage film that traces the evolution of cinema since its invention until 1924. The film is divided into 5 chapters:

Read moreThe Machine to remake life

Léonce Perret cinematographer

Léonce Perret cinematographist is a book by Daniel Taillé published in March 2006 ( ISBN  2952612803 ) .

This documentary traces the career of Léonce Perret , an author filmmaker until 1935 , date of his death. This book is a biography and an almost exhaustive list of more than 400 films played, produced or produced by the filmmaker. Moreover this book is the fruit of a historical research work since it is the first complete work about Léonce Perret .

Read moreLéonce Perret cinematographer

The Ideal Cinema-Jacques Tati

The Ideal Cinema Hall – Jacques Tati is inaugurated in Aniche on. Its first public meeting took place on November 23, 1905 by the Société du cinématographe automobile 1 , which makes this fixed motion theater in operation the oldest cinema in the world for a paid public session; the only working cinema in the world, under public management.

The complex Claude Berri is composed of the Ideal Cinema – Jacques Tati as well as the room Louis Pol , under public management of the city of Aniche.

Read moreThe Ideal Cinema-Jacques Tati


The outfield is the set of elements that do not appear in the frame of an image. This expression designates in particular the part of the scene that does not appear in a plane of a film because it is not intercepted by the field of the optics of the camera , that this field is invariable (fixed plane) or variable (plane where the camera moves ( panning and / or tracking ) and / or zooming ). The out-of-field is not recorded on the film but can be suggested by various elements of the image or sound.

Read moreOffscreen

Hollywood Babylon

Hollywood Babylone is a book by filmmaker Kenneth Anger published in an embryonic version in 1959 by Parisian publisher Jean-Jacques Pauvert 1 . The book was published in its final version in 1975 the United States was surrounded by scandal, the book was quickly banned 2 . It reveals the dark sideof Hollywood celebrities . The full version of 1975 is published in French for the first time in 2013 by Tristram Publishing House 3 , 4 .

Read moreHollywood Babylon

History of Colombian cinema

The history of Colombian cinema lists, studies and interprets all events related to this performing arts in Colombia. In the course of its history, Colombian cinema was not considered a profitable industry, which hindered the continuity of its production. During the first decades of the xx th  century , some companies have tried to feed a constant level of production; but lack of economic support and strong foreign competition have shattered initiatives. Thanks to the creation of the Compañía de Fomento Cinematográfico (FOCINE), some productions have been realized. However, this company was liquidated in the early 1990s. Currently, thanks to the film law approved in 2003, initiatives are reviving around the cinematographic activity, which allows a revival of Colombian cinema, both nationally and internationally.

Read moreHistory of Colombian cinema

History of French animation

The History of French animation begins in the xix th  century when France pioneered in subsequent patents to the invention of the Cinematograph . It mainly earns its spurs in xx th  century when French filmmakers arise in counterpoint hegemonic Disney .

Throughout the century, France sees the establishment of a serious and solid animation industry, but projects sometimes struggle to find funds and must then limit their ambitions because they suffer from disrepute compared to cinema in taken real views. Critical and commercial successes such as The King and the Bird (1980), Kirikou and the Sorceress (1998), The Triplets of Belleville (2003) or Persepolis (2007), however, allow to consolidate the reputation of the genre.

Read moreHistory of French animation


In a movie, the flashback , or flashback , whose literary equivalent is the analepsis , is script writing process which, within the narrative continuity, introduced an action (in the form of a plane , a sequence , or a scene ) that took place chronologically before the current action.

This process is most often used to provide the viewer with the necessary elements to understand the behavior of the main characters but can also be used for poetic, humorous purposes, etc.

Read moreFlashback

Lost movie

lost film is a long or a short film of cinema that no longer exists in any archive in any studio or whether we can not find in any private collection. The term “lost film” is also used in the literal sense to refer to films in which certain scenes or sequences have been lost, unedited or whose alternative versions have been misplaced.

Sometimes a copy of a “lost film” is found; these copies are then listed under the name of Lazare films [ref. necessary] . A film that has not been found in its entirety is called a “partially lost film”.

Read moreLost movie

Erotic movie

An erotic film , also said soft porn or Softporn is a movie finality erotic where sexuality is central. If nudity is present in erotic films, sex is simulated, which is their main difference compared to pornographic films . Erotic films are linked to what is known as ”  soft pornography  ” , while pornographic films are ”  hard porn  ” .

In France, the majority of the films grouped under the name “erotic” are films banned under 16 years.

Read moreErotic movie

Cult movie

cult film is a generally original film that has acquired a highly dedicated group of fans. The term does not refer to a genre in its true sense, nor to an aesthetic quality, but qualifies a film according to the particular way in which it is received by the public or a part of the public. A cult film has a group of admirers, and it’s usually a movie that “either we like or hate”, but these properties are not enough to define it completely.

Read moreCult movie

Film Booking Offices of America

The Film Booking Offices of America , or FBO , was an American production studio during the era of silent film . This company produced most of the time low budget movies. His trade began with Robertson-Cole, the US division of the British import-export company. Robertson-Cole initiated film production in 1920  ; two years later, they reorganized under the name of the FBO. In 1923 , the studio contracted with Western actor Fred Thomson , who will become one of Hollywood’s most popular actors.

Read moreFilm Booking Offices of America

The Execution of Mary, Queen of Scots

The Execution of Mary, Queen of the Scots is an American film directed by Alfred Clark and filmed by William Heise , released in 1895 . It restores the beheading of Mary Stuart , Queen of Scotland , condemned for high treason to death by her cousin Elizabeth I re of England in 1587 .

The director and author of this film imagines and thus uses for the first time in the cinema a trick (or tricking) that is called camera stop , which will make the happiness of Georges Méliès . The American historian Charles Musser says of this film that he brings “a remarkable innovation to the cinema” 1 .

Read moreThe Execution of Mary, Queen of Scots

History of Spanish animation

The story of the Spanish animation really began with the many small films made between 1908 and 1916 by the Segundo Aragonese pioneer Chomón , a specialist in special effects and puppets – which is often compared to his contemporary Georges Méliès – and who, in fact, divided his time between France and Spain .

However, the first feature film of Spanish animation, Garbancito de la Mancha , is produced only in 1945 by Arturo Moreno , who will give him a sequel in 1948 with Alegres vacaciones . Their producer, José María Blay , will make a third (unfortunate) attempt with Los Sueños de Tay-Pi , a film that has now disappeared.

Read moreHistory of Spanish animation

Ellipse (cinema)

A figure of literary style, the ellipse has an equivalent of the same name in the writing of film scripts . It consists in suggesting an action by simply showing what happens before and what is observed afterwards. The vast majority of movies use ellipses to avoid exposing actions that bring nothing to narration. This is why we do not see a character going to the toilet or brushing their teeth, unless this completes the characterization of this character. Beyond these ellipses of convenience, linked to moral periods and fashions, others are used to advance the story, to pace it, even to complicate it.

Read moreEllipse (cinema)

Eden Theater

The Eden Theater is a theater and cinema, located in La Ciotat ( Bouches-du-Rhône ). Inaugurated as a theater on June 16, 1889, it is, in the world, the oldest theater and theater still in activity. The Eden is classified since February 12, 1996 in annex of the inventory of the historical monuments. It belongs to the city of La Ciotat since 1992 and is part of the heritage of the th Art 1 .

Read moreEden Theater

Cinema economy

The economy of the cinema is the branch of the economy of culture which is interested in the film industry .

The cinema economy mobilizes on the one hand the tools of econometrics for the empirical description of the field, and on the other hand those of the industrial economy to give an account of the organizational logics and relations between the different links of the sector. .

Read moreCinema economy


Domitor is the ”  international association for the development of early cinema research  ” and brings together international researchers specialized in the study of cinema from the beginnings until 1915 .

Founded in October 1985 at the Silent Film Festival in Pordenone , Italy, the Domitor Association institutionalized the growing interest of researchers for this corpus following the Brighton Congress in 1978. The five founders are Stephen Bottomore (UK ), Paolo Cherchi Usai (Italy), André Gaudreault (Quebec), Tom Gunning (United States) and Emmanuelle Toulet (France).

Read moredomitor

Filmographic Dictionary of World Literature

The Filmographic Dictionary of World Literature is a three-volume encyclopedic repertory established in 1971 by Johan Daisne . This publication links the films and literary works they adapt.

It lists the titles of films, the original title of the book, the country and the year of production, the names of directors, actors and photographers.

The book is out of print.

Read moreFilmographic Dictionary of World Literature

Diagonal of the field

The field of a fixed or moving camera lens is determined on the ground by a trapezoid , the smallest of the parallel bases being the width of the photogram on the film itself (or on the digital sensor) and the most large, the width of the terrain seen by the lens at the edges of the sharpness of the image.

The diagonal of the field is one or the other of the two diagonals of this trapezium.

Read moreDiagonal of the field

Continental Films

The Continental Films , said Continental is a French film production company, active during the Occupation , and funded by German capital. Created in 1940 by Joseph Goebbels for propaganda purposes, however, it is led by Francophile Alfred Greven who will take little account of the political orders received from Berlin. The company produced between 1941 and 1944 about thirty quality feature films, including some like The Hand of the Devil , Au Bonheur des Dames or The Ravenhave become French classics. The Continental will disappear at the Liberation .

Read moreContinental Films


Cinévie is a weekly French consumer magazine, mainly devoted to the life and career of movie stars. Created in 1945, it merges in 1948 with Cinévogue becoming Cinévie-Cinévoguebefore being absorbed the following year by its competitor Cinémonde .

L. de Premio-Réal was the director of the publication and Marc Moallic the artistic director.

Subtitled “illustrated magazine of the cinema”, it notably included critics of films signed by François Chalais and France Roche 1 .

Read moreCinévie


The cinephile , in its etymological sense, is the love of cinema . The term appeared in France in the 1910s 1 , was published in the 1920s cinematographic magazines 2 and served first to designate a French cultural and intellectual movement that lasted until 1968 . Since the term emancipated to characterize any passion of the cinema, whatever its expression and its organization.

Read morecinephile


The Cinematograph (from Ancient Greek κίνημα / Kinema , “movement” and γράφειν / graphein , “write”) is the registered trademark of a device invented in 1895 by the Lumière brothers , both camera to camera and film projector after that Antoine Lumière (the father of Louis and Auguste) discovers, during a trip to Paris, the kinetoscope of Thomas Edison he advises his son to imagine a competitor device 1also incorporating the large screen that could admire the Grevin Museum , during the same trip, attending a projection of luminous Pantomimes the Optical Theater of Émile Reynaud 2 .

Read morecinematograph

Contemporary Russian Cinema, (r) evolutions

Contemporary Russian Cinema, (r) evolutions is a collective work, whose production was directed by Eugénie Zvonkine and published in November 2017 in France . It presents an in-depth study of contemporary Russian cinema in French, from the 1990s until today, in terms of themes, techniques and formal inventions. But also on the relationship of Russian cinema with the state and with the Soviet past of Russia and the former countries that constituted the USSR . The texts of the book consider the historical and aesthetic aspects of Russian cinema, but also the legal and economic aspects.

Read moreContemporary Russian Cinema, (r) evolutions

British comedy cinema

The British comedy includes all the comic films produced in the United Kingdom.
The British comedy influences of several centuries from the theater at the end of the xvi th  century , William Shakespeare wrote The Comedy of Errors , based on the farce and misunderstandings. From the xix th  century , the Mime grows by incorporating the Slapstick  ; Charlie Chaplin will notably begin his acting career with Mime . Early in the film, at the beginning of xx th  centuryBurlesqueappears . With the advent of the speaking in 1927 , the comic cinema takes another rise, the laughter being able to be provoked not only by the burlesque of the situations, but also by the dialogues. British comedy is finally diversifying into television from the 1950s.
Among the actors in British comedy, some have a worldwide reputation, such Charlie Chaplin , Monty Python team , Rowan Atkinson …

Read moreBritish comedy cinema

Champ-reverse shot

The field-shot is a technique and an aesthetic of shooting in movies, which consists of filming a scene at a given angle , then filming the same scene at an opposite angle, 180 ° from the first, or according to a symmetry axial or a symmetry with respect to a point , or to film separately two actions which, in reality, are confronted (face to face of two armies, or tennis match, for example). In the editing operation , the two shots, field and reverse shot, offer a wide choice of stage continuity solutions. Both plans can indeed be broken up and assembled according to the wishes of thedirector or the dramatic necessities of the story 1 .

Read moreChamp-reverse shot

Léon Bouly

Thomas Guillaume Bouly ( 1872 – 1932 ) is a French inventor and creator of the term cinematograph .

Very little is known about him, except that after having built chronophotography devices , he filed on February 12, 1892 the patent of a ”  reversible camera of photography and optics for the analysis and the synthesis of movements, says the “Cynématographe Léon Bouly”. 

Read moreLéon Bouly

John Jules Barrish

John Jules Barrish is an Irish writer and philosopher born on July 30, 1885 and died March 7, 1939 in Cork , Ireland . Writer, we owe him a work of fiction and two books of philosophical reflection. But his greatest work remains unquestionably his four-volume encyclopedia of cinema called Cinema and Metaphor , in which he will develop theories about the behavior of the viewer in the face of the new cinematic spectacle.

Read moreJohn Jules Barrish

Before 1895 at the cinema


    • 1830  : The British Michael Faraday invents the Faraday wheel which highlights the retinal persistence .
    • 1831  : In his footsteps, the Belgian Joseph Antoine Ferdinand Plateau invents the phenakistiscope to demonstrate the importance of retinal persistence in the perception of movement.
    • 1834  : The British William George Horner invents the zootrope (or magic drum ), an optical toy that uses drawings to recompose a movement of a second.

Read moreBefore 1895 at the cinema


The freeze frame (sometimes referred to as freezing of the image or frozen image , in imitation of English freeze frame or freeze ) is a cinematographic process, obtained in post-production , which consists in duplicating ad libitum a photogram of film, either to highlight this photogram, or to have the public identify the taking of a photographic shot by one of the characters in the film, or to freeze the space and thus give the public a clear sign of the end of the story (identified with the movement).

Read morePause

Camera stop

The camera stop is one of the most ancient fakes or rigging of cinema. It consists in suspending the shooting during the shooting, thus producing two distinct shots, filmed according to the same frame, representing a scene which differs from one take to the other by one or more details. Putting them end to end makes one think of an instantaneous modification of a magical order. It was first used on August 28, 1895 by a director and a screenwriter of Thomas Edison , William Heise and Alfred Clark, charged with finding new subjects, to turn a reconstruction of the decapitation of Mary Stuart, Queen of Scotland , condemned for treason by his cousin, Queen Elizabeth re of England in 1587 . The film is called The Execution of Mary Stuart ( The Execution of Mary, Queen of Scots ), and takes less than a minute, as all films of the era.

Read moreCamera stop

Aquila Films

Aquila Films is an Italian silent film production and distribution company based in Turin .


The company is founded in 1907 . It produces many crime or mystery films, promoting them in a sensational way, which quickly ensures its success. The company’s production is growing rapidly, from five films in 1907 to sixty-three in 1911 . Aquila Films has established strong relationships with foreign distributors, particularly in Great Britain and France , and as a result has enjoyed significant commercial success in foreign markets. Hard hit by the outbreak of the First World War, which closed many of its profitable export markets, it must cease trading in 1917 1 .

Read moreAquila Films

Roscoe Arbuckle case

The case Roscoe Arbuckle , following the death of the actress Virginia Rappe , in 1921 , is the first of what will be called the great scandals Hollywood. The actor and director Roscoe Arbuckle , at the time at the height of his glory, is accused of the rape and the death of the actress. The press for months seizes the news and gives it such a resonance that the American film industry decides to adopt codes of good conduct to moralize the profession and film production. Despite his acquittal , Roscoe Arbuckle is forbidden to work and this is the brutal end of his career.

Read moreRoscoe Arbuckle case

Blum-Byrnes Agreement

The Blum – Byrnes agreement is a Franco – American agreement signed onby US Secretary of State James F. Byrnes and representatives of the French government, Leon Blum and Jean Monnet , after lengthy negotiations . It liquidates part of the French debt to the United States after the Second World War (two billion dollars ).

The Truman administration even offers a new loan to France on repayment terms considered exceptional. The United States is providing US $ 300 million worth of assistance ( $ 3.5 billion worth in 2012) repayable over 35 years and a $ 650 million bank loan ($ 7.6 billion worth of 2012 bonds).

Read moreBlum-Byrnes Agreement


The accelerated is a special effect , realized when shooting with a film camera , or postproduction with a shooting machine , and specific to the cinema , which consists in filming a moving subject by decreasing the rate of shooting (in English underkranking ) so that the movement of the subject is accelerated to the projection. In sound cinema, at standard projection rate, fixed at 24 frames or 25 framesper second, to accelerate twice the movement of the subject filmed, it is necessary that the camera which has taken the shooting rotates at 12 frames per second. For an accelerated three times, the camera should shoot at 8 frames per second.

Read moreAccelerated

History of cinema

Origins of cinema

The cinema was born at the end of the xix th  century . If the animation dates back at least to the xvii th  century , with ” magic lantern  “, wait until 1891 to see appearing the first patent for the animation of photographic images and the successful production of a first silver camera . The collective spectacle that will result is born a few years later.

Read moreHistory of cinema