Movie (cinema)

The English word film which means “layer”, “veil”, is commonly used in French as such, film , to designate both the film loaded in the stores of film cameras , intended for cinematographic shots that the same works of cinema .

Origin of the word

It is the American inventor and industrialist Thomas Edison who adopts since 1894 the English word for the first works of the cinema that his assistant, William Kennedy Laurie Dickson , the first director of the History , turns with the help of Kinétographe . “Kinétographe (in Greek, movement writing): camera of the American Thomas Edison, patented August 24, 1891, employing perforated film 35 mm and a system of intermittent advance of the film by” ratchet wheel “. Between 1891 and 1895, Edison performs some seventy movies 1  ” .

After development , the films are then individually presented to the audience through the Kinetoscope . “The cinema, as we know it today, began with the invention of the Kinetograph and Kinetoscope. These two instruments Represent the first practical method of cinematography (The cinema as we know it today, began with the invention of the Kinetoscope and Kinématographe. These two instruments are the first efficient method of film camera) 2  ” . “The tapes shot by Dickson are strictly speaking the first films 3  ” .

The fatherhood of the word film, attributed to Edison, is confirmed by William KL Dickson, despite his disagreement and his quarrel with his former employer about the projection on the big screen which he saw the need, before the first projections of the Lumière brothers in 1895 4 . The 35 mm format , with its 8 characteristic rectangular perforations, was developed by the two men and William Heise in 1893. “Edison made the film a decisive step, creating the modern film of 35 mm, with four pairs of perforations by image. » 5

The Lumière brothers will designate by “animated photographic views” their works on perforated silver tape with a single round perforation on each side of the photograms , a format that will soon be obsolete. Georges Méliès will call his own “paintings” .

Variations of the word

We are talking about :

– Love movie  ;

– musical film  ;

– Opera film  ;

– Dance film  ;

– Animation movie  ;

– Documentary film  ;

– comic film  ;

– Movie of bidasses  ;

– Skit film  ;

– Trial film  ;

– Black film  ;

– gangster movie  ;

– spy film  ;

– Action movie  ;

– War movie  ;

– Partisan film  ;

– Adventure movie  ;

– Breakage film  ;

– Enigma film  ;

– Science fiction film  ;

– Superhero movie  ;

– horror movie  ;

– Zombie movie  ;

– Erotic film  ;

– Pornographic film  ;

– Redneck movie .

A cult film is a film adulated from its appearance on the market, or after its exploitation, even a few decades later, by a part of the public, who considers that this work deserves an unusually important place in the history of cinema, and this sometimes in opposition to his reception by the cinema critic or the results of his box office .

A TV movie can develop about the same themes as movie films, but its production initially destines it for exploitation on television networks, public or private .

A filmography is the list of films that concern an artist (director, scriptwriter, technician, actor) or a fictional character .

A pocket film is a film shot, edited and most often broadcast from a mobile phone .

Notes and references

  1. ↑ Laurent Mannoni, “Glossary” in Libération special issue, Supplement No. 4306 of 22 March 1995, celebrating March 22, 1895, French year of the invention of cinema, page 3
  2. ↑ ( in ) John Barnes ( Eds. ), The Beginnings of the cinema in England: 1894-1901 , Vol.  1: 1894-1896 , Exeter (Devon), University of Exeter Press,st  ed. 1976), 294  p. ( ISBN  978-0-85989-954-3 ) , preface
  3. ↑ Georges Sadoul , history of world cinema from its origins to today , Paris, Flammarion ,, 719  p. p.  16
  4. ↑ ( in ) William Kennedy Laurie Dickson and Antonia Dickson ( pref.  Thomas Edison), History of the Kinetograph, Kinetoscope and Kineto-Phonograph , New York, The Museum of Modern Art ,, 55  p. ( ISBN  0-87070-038-3 )
  5. ↑ Sadoul 1968 , p.  11

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