Fascist propaganda cinema

The fascist propaganda films is “cinematic instrument” of the regime fascist Italy in the first half of the xx th  century that served to propagate its values and ideals to the masses.

It was an artistic phenomenon that succeeded in creating in some cases valuable cinematographic works. Like the cinema of the Third Reich and the Soviet cinema , the Italian cinema of the fascist period was supported by the state and used as a tool of political propaganda .

History

The first film of fascist propaganda, dating back to 1923 , is it grido dell’aquila of Mario Volpe 1 . Other examples of precursors of fascist propaganda film are the two silent films titled The Martyrs of Italy ( I martiri d’Italia ), released at the same time in 1927  : the first  (it) directed by Domenico Gaido and the second  ( it) by Silvio Laurenti Rosa .

In 1924 , the year of the brief crisis suffered by the fascist regime after the murder of the Socialist deputy Giacomo Matteotti , the Istituto Luce was founded, with the aim of spreading the image of Mussolini throughout Italy in film news. . In 1934 the “Under-Secretary of State for Press and Propaganda” ( Sottosegretariato di Stato for the Stampa and Propaganda ) was established, which in 1937 became the “Ministry of Popular Culture” ( Ministero della Cultura Popolare ).

Another driving force behind the development of fascist cinema is the inauguration, in 1932 , of the Venice Film Festival ( Mostra Internazionale d’Arte Cinematografica di Venezia ). In 1934 isborn the “General Direction of the cinema” ( Direzione generale per il cinema  (it) ) and in 1937 the studios of Cinecittà are founded in Rome as well as its annex the school Centro Sperimentale di Cinematografia , a true forge of talents for the future celebrities, actors, directors, inventors of subjects and writers.

Of the 772 films produced in Italy between 1930 and 1943 , about 100 can be classified as direct or indirect propaganda films. The indirect propaganda clearly dominates the direct propaganda 1 .

Among the main propaganda films are Camicia nera  (it) ( 1933 ) by Giovacchino Forzano , Vecchia guardia ( 1934 ) by Alessandro Blasetti , Condottieri  (it) ( 1937 ) by Luis Trenker and Luciano Serra, pilot ( Luciano Serra pilota , 1938 ) by Goffredo Alessandrini 1 .

Fascist propaganda cinema coexisted with the uncommitted vein of ”  white phones  “, light and carefree comedies in the petty-bourgeois milieu. Actors and directors of Italian cinema in the 1930s and early 1940s participated in either Fascist propaganda films or white-cell comedies.

Two directors who became famous made their debut in the fascist propaganda film: Alberto Lattuada (with the film Giacomo the idealista of 1942 ) and the future master of neorealism , Roberto Rossellini , with three films: The White Ship ( La nave bianca ) , A pilot returns  (it) ( A pilota ritorna ) and the Man to the cross ( L’uomo della croce ), in which were already present neorealistic elements.

During the brief Italian Social Republic , in Venice was born Cinevillaggio , also called Cineisola , a structure for film production seen as an alternative to Cinecittà abandoned by the fascists because of the conflict. This “village” or “island” of the cinema appeared from autumn 1943 on the initiative of the Ministry of Popular Culture of the RSI led by Ferdinando Mezzasoma . In these studios was shot a last film that can be attached to the propaganda film: Fatto di cronaca , directed by Piero Ballerini and performed by Osvaldo Valentiand Luisa Ferida . These symbolic actors of the fascist cinema were then shot by the partisans for collaboration with the Nazis and fascists.

Organization

Luigi Freddi is the head of the Directorate General of Cinematography 2 .

Characteristics of the films

The aesthetic and themes of propaganda cinema are manhood, heroism, revolutionism (as the fascist gun) and the celebration of the regime and its ideals 3 .

The main features of Fascist propaganda films are:

  • show the positive changes under fascism  ;
  • celebrate fascist values;
  • celebrate the march on Rome and the rise of fascism;
  • to show the greatness of Italy and devotion to the country;
  • to tell historical facts inherent to the History of Italy and especially of the Risorgimento  ;
  • to trace the salient biographical facts of important figures in Italian history;
  • to praise the Roman Empire and Rome  ;
  • to exalt Italian colonialism for its “civilizing mission”;
  • to exalt the military operations of the armed forces and volunteers in the wars of fascist Italy: Spanish Civil War , Ethiopian War , Italian occupation of Albania (1939-1943), Second World War  ;
  • denigrate and ridicule opponents of the regime ( United States , Soviet Union , Great Britain ).

Principal Directors and Movies

  • Alberto Lattuada
    • Giacomo the idealista ( 1942 )
  • Romolo Marcellini
    • Sentinel of the Bronzo ( 1937 )
    • The conquista dell’aria ( 1939 )
    • The uomo della legione ( 1940 )
    • MAS ( 1942 )
  • Marcello Albani
    • Redenzione ( 1943 )
    • The ultimo sogno ( 1944 )

L’ultimo sogno was shot in the Giudecca in Venice during the Italian Social Republic

  • Domenico M. Gambino
    • Lotte nell’ombra ( 1938 )
    • Traversata nera ( 1939 )
  • Enrico Guazzoni
    • I due sergenti ( 1936 )
  • Andrea Della Sabbia
    • The casa senza tempo ( 1943 )
  • Alessandro Blasetti
    • Sole ( 1929 )
    • Terra Madre ( 1931 )
    • 1860 ( 1934 )
    • Vecchia guardia ( 1934 )
    • Aldebaran ( 1935 )
    • Ettore Fieramosca ( 1938 )
    • The corona di ferro ( 1941 )
    • Quattro passi fra the nuvole ( 1943 )
  • Mario Camerini
    • Great appello ( 1936 )
  • Corrado D’Errico
    • Il cammino degli eroi ( 1936 )
  • Augusto Genina
    • Lo squadrone bianco ( 1936 )
    • The Assedio dell’Alcazar ( 1940 )
    • Bengasi ( 1942 )
  • Carlo Campogalliani
    • Stadio ( 1934 )
    • He cavaliere di Kruja ( 1940 )
    • He treno crociato ( 1943 )
  • Pier Luigi Faraldo
    • Sancta Maria ( 1941 )
  • Carmine Gallone
    • Gli ultimi giorni di Pompei ( 1926 )
    • Scipione the Africano ( 1937 )
    • Cristoforo Colombo ( 1937 )
    • Giuseppe Verdi ( 1938 )
    • Odessa in fiamme ( 1942 )
    • Harlem ( 1943 )
  • Francesco De Robertis
    • Uomini sul fondo ( 1941 )
    • Alfa Tau! ( 1942 )
    • Uomini and Heaven ( 1943 )
    • Marinai senza stelle ( 1943 )
    • Vivere Ancora ( 1944 )

Vivere ancora was shot in Giudecca during the Italian Social Republic

  • Piero Costa
    • Aeroporto ( 1944 )

Aeroporto was shot at the Giudecca during the Italian Social Republic

  • Giovacchino Forzano
    • Camicia nera ( 1933 )
    • Villafranca ( 1934 )
    • Campo di Maggio ( 1935 )
    • Tredici uomini e a cannone ( 1936 )
    • Racconti of Autunno, Di inverno e di primavera ( 1937 )
  • Goffredo Alessandrini
    • Cavalleria ( 1936 )
    • Luciano Serra pilota ( 1938 )
    • Abuna Messias ( 1939 )
    • Noi vivi ( 1942 )
    • Addio Kira! ( 1942 )
    • Giarabub ( 1942 )
  • Luis Trenker
    • Condottieri ( 1937 )
  • Mario Volpe
    • He grido dell’aquila ( 1923 )
  • Domenico Gaido
    • I martiri of Italia ( 1927 )
  • Silvio Laurenti Rosa
    • I martiri of Italia ( 1927 )
  • Roberto Rossellini
    • The Nave Bianca ( 1941 )
    • A pilota ritorna ( 1942 )
    • The uomo dalla croce ( 1943 )
  • Piero Ballerini
    • A fatto di cronaca ( 1944 )

A fatto di cronaca was shot at the Giudecca during the Italian Social Republic

  • Raffaello Matarazzo
    • Littoria ( 1933 )
  • Walter Ruttmann
    • Acciaio ( 1933 )
  • Esodo Pratelli
    • Gente dell’aria ( 1943 )
  • Nunzio Malasomma
    • Cose dell’altro mondo ( 1939 )
  • Mario Baffico
    • I trecento della settima ( 1943 )
    • Ogni giorno è domenica ( 1944 )
    • Trent’anni di servizio ( 1944 )

Ogni giorno è domenica and Trent’anni di servizio were shot in the studios of Giudecca during the Italian Social Republic

  • Aldo Vergano
    • Pietro Micca ( 1938 )
    • Quelli della montagna ( 1942 )
  • Marco Elter
    • The scarpe al sole ( 1935 )
  • Oreste Biancoli
    • Piccolo alpino ( 1940 )
  • Gennaro Righelli
    • The armata azzurra ( 1932 )
    • Il cavaliere di San Marco ( 1939 )
    • Orizzonte of the blood ( 1943 )
  • Edgard Neville
    • Carmen fra i rossi ( 1939 )
  • Guido Brignone
    • Passaporto Rosso ( 1935 )
    • Sotto the croce del sud ( 1938 )

Notes and references

  1. ↑ a , b and c ( it ) António Costa, Il cinema del ventennio fascista  [ archive ]
  2. ↑ “Do you know the cinema? ” The World nonstandard games , 2011, page 83.
  3. ↑ ( it ) Laura Tussi, Il cinema nel ventennio fascista: quadro storico  [ archive ]

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