The name sound on disk ( sound on disk ) is a term coined in the 2000s by film historians ( Serge Bromberg in France, Rick Altman in the United States ) to tell a story hitherto obscured sound film . It applies to various techniques for synchronizing a viewing apparatus movies such as Kinetoscope with The Dickson Experimental Sound Film , first experiment of its kind, due to Thomas Edison or later the cinematograph , the chronophoneand other methods, with an apparatus for reading cylinders or wax discs, such as the phonograph , the gramophone , or the berlinophone, as well as corresponding sound films, such as Gaumont phonoscenes . The coupling of the two devices being approximate at the beginning of the process, and the sessions enamelled of technical incidents which devalued it with the eyes and especially with the ears of the public. The Vitaphone 1 of 1926 solved this problem of the sound on disk, but was swept by the invention of the sound on film ( sound on film ) by optical track then by magnetic stripe. The denomination thus wished to differentiate the two epochs.
- Phonorama (1900) (sound on cylinders of brown wax).
- Phono-Cinema-Theater (1900) (sound on cylinders of brown wax).
- Cinémato-Gramo-Théâtre (between 1900 and 1914) (commercial records mimicked by actors different from the original performers) ” Georges Mendel ” process 500 films made.
- Leon Gaumont entrusts to the first film director , Alice Guy , the supervision of phonoscenes (recorded from 1906) by the process he bought from Georges Demenÿ , the chronophone , renamed “chronomégaphone” in the 1910s, the sound amplification having evolved. Almost 800 films made (140 preserved).
- Charles Pathé , Ciné-phono Pathé.
- Cinophon (eg, The Donna e Mobile, Alfred Duskes, 1908)
- Kinetophone who gives Dickson Experimental Sound Movie in 1894 or 1895 .
- Photokinema (1921)
- Vitaphone (1926)
Notes and references
- ↑ This process opened the way to sound movies, notably with Don Juan in 1926 and the famous Jazz Singer in 1927.
- ↑ Eric Lange, Serge Bromberg, The First Steps film, looking sound , DVD Lobster.