Before 1895 at the cinema

Events

    • 1830 : The British Michael Faraday invents the Faraday wheel which highlights the retinal persistence .
    • 1831 : In his footsteps, the Belgian Joseph Antoine Ferdinand Plateau invents the phenakistiscope to demonstrate the importance of retinal persistence in the perception of movement.
    • 1834 : The British William George Horner invents the zootrope (or magic drum ), an optical toy that uses drawings to recompose a movement of a second.

  • 1876 : The Frenchman Emile Reynaud invents the praxinoscope , another optical toy using drawings.
  • 1878 : The British Eadweard Muybridge develops a device of 12 cameras with plates of glass to analyze the phases of theequine gallop which, until now, was falsely perceived and represented in drawing and painting.
  • 1880 : Eadweard Muybridge invents the zoopraxiscope , a projection device that can project on the big screen 12 or 24 photographs on glass arranged on a rotating disk of glass, which reproduces the movement recorded for one to two seconds. At the same time, Émile Reynaud launches his projection praxinoscope.
  • 1882 : The Frenchman Étienne-Jules Marey , in collaboration with his compatriot Albert Londe , invents the chronophotographer with fixed photosensitive glass plates contained in twelve photographic chambers . He then invented the photographic rifle which, in one second, captured 12 photographic snapshots on rotating glass plates with as many stops for photographic shooting , in the manner of a revolver barrel.
  • 1888 : The Frenchman Louis Aimee Augustin The Prince records on paper about twenty chronophotographies in one second, A scene in the garden of Roundhay , with his camera, the Mk2, but can not show them in movement.
  • 1888 : The American John Carbutt invents a supple and transparent support, cellulose nitrate , celluloid, marketed in 1889 by the American industrialist George Eastman in the form of strips of 70 mm wide.
  • 1889 : The British William Friese-Greene recorded a dozen chronophotographs in one second, Leisurely Pedestrians, Open Topped Buses and Hansom Cabs Trotting Horses , of which there is no trace to attest to the reality.
  • 1889 : Based on sketches by the American Thomas Edison , his collaborators William Kennedy Laurie Dickson and Charles A. Brown invent the first version of the Edison camera, powered by the Eastman flexible film cut into strips of 19 mm wide, at horizontal unfolding, with a row of sixrectangular perforations at the bottom of thecircular photograms inherited from the optical toys. This device with intermittent roll of the film is called Kinétographe , it is the first efficient camera in the history of cinema. To watch the recorded films, Dickson invents the Kinetoscope, a continuous-moving apparatus in front of a light bulb, where the photographic films are seen in motion by a set of magnifying glasses and an individual eyecup. Official presentation of the first Edison film, Dickson Greeting (the English word film is adopted by Edison for impressed film reels), on May 20, 1891 in front of an assembly of one hundred and fifty activists of the Federation of Women’s Clubs .
  • 1890 : Étienne-Jules Marey adapts the same flexible celluloid support to his chronophotographe.
  • 1891 : Thomas Edison and his collaborators, WKL Dickson and William Heise , dissatisfied with the results obtained in 19 mm , develop a new film format, which will become the standard support of cinema: the 35 mm , with a double game of four rectangular Edison perforations (registered model) on each side of each photogram.
  • 1892 : Émile Reynaud presents his luminous pantomimes with the help of his Optical Theater at the Musée Grévin . First animated cartoons and first screenings in motion on the big screen.
  • 1893 – 1895 : Edison produced seventy films of less than one minute each. William Kennedy Laurie Dickson takes the lead, becoming the first director in the history of cinema. For this purpose, Edison had the first film studio , the Black Maria , built and licensed and installed Kinestoscope Parlors , rooms where several films were shown on as many Kinetoscopes, with a flat fee. In fact, it is the first cinemas, and the first recipes of the cinema, to which must be added the Fantastic Cabinet of the Grévin museum, where take place the paid sessions of the optical theater Reynaud.
  • 1894 : Antoine Lumière , visiting Paris, attends a demonstration of the Kinetoscope and a session of the Optical Theater. Returning to Lyon, he directs the research of his sons on the animated image. Auguste and Louis Lumière are adapting the claw and cam drive system (commonly used in the textile industry, of which Lyon is an important center) to a first camera model, using a non-projectable paper film 35 mm wide to a set of two round perforations on both sides of the photograms (thus avoiding the counterfeit Edison film).

Main births

1840s
  • December 8, 1844 : Émile Reynaud , French inventor, inventor of the cartoon , initiator of the first animated screenings on a big screen
  • August 28, 1841 : Louis Aimée Augustin Le Prince , French-English inventor of the pre-cinema period
  • October 22, 1844 : Sarah Bernhardt , French actress of tragedy
  • February 11, 1847 : Thomas Edison , American inventor of the first film camera and initiator of the word “film”
1850s
  • November 8, 1855 : James Williamson , British director
  • January 4, 1857 : Emile Cohl , draftsman and one of the great director of the cartoon
1860s
  • August 3, 1860 : William Kennedy Laurie Dickson , Franco-British inventor and first film director
  • December 8, 1861 : Georges Méliès , French illusionist, director and comedian
  • March 30, 1862 : Victorin Jasset , French director
  • October 19, 1862 : Auguste Lumière , inventor and French industrialist
  • December 26, 1863 : Charles Pathé , French producer
  • January 4, 1864 : George Albert Smith , British director
  • February 19, 1864 : Ferdinand Zecca , French director
  • May 10, 1864 : Léon Gaumont , French industrialist
  • October 5, 1864 : Louis Lumière , inventor, director, producer and French industrialist
  • March 14, 1865 : Filoteo Alberini , Italian producer and director
  • June 12, 1867 : William Bechtel , American actor
  • April 10, 1868 : George Arliss , British comedian
  • June 5, 1869 : British director Lewin Fitzhamon
  • July 4, 1869 : William E. Wing , American screenwriter
  • October 3, 1869 : Robert W. Paul , first British director
1870s
  • December 16, 1871 : Ernest Shipman , Canadian producer
  • January 7, 1873 : Adolph Zukor , American producer
  • February 19, 1873 : Louis Feuillade , French director
  • April 24, 1873 : Robert Wiene , German director
  • July 1, 1873 : Alice Guy , first film director, French-American producer
  • January 5, 1875 : James Stuart Blackton , American director, inventor of the cartoon on photosensitive medium
  • January 22, 1875 : David Wark Griffith
  • August 24, 1877 : Victor Boucher , French actor
  • September 9, 1877 : André Alerme , French actor
  • April 28, 1878 : Lionel Barrymore , actor and American director
  • March 12, 1879 : Alfred Abel , German actor and director
  • August 15, 1879 : Ethel Barrymore , American actress
  • August 17, 1879 : Samuel Goldwyn , American producer
  • September 26, 1879 : André Brulé , French actor
  • October 3, 1879 : André Brunot , French actor
  • October 23, 1879 : Arthur Henry Gooden , British screenwriter
1880s
  • January 17, 1880 : Mack Sennett , Canadian producer and director
  • January 29, 1880 : WC Fields , screenwriter and American actor
  • February 18, 1880 : Webster Cullison , American director
  • April 12, 1880 : Harry Baur , French actor
  • September 27, 1880 : Wally Van , actor and American director
  • December 14, 1880 : Léon Belières , French actor
  • August 12, 1881 : Cecil Blount DeMille
  • January 17, 1882 : Noah Beery , American actor
  • February 15, 1882 : John Barrymore , American actor
  • September 9, 1882 : Bach (Charles-Joseph Pasquier) , actor and comic French trooper
  • September 30, 1882 : George Bancroft , American actor
  • February 9, 1883 : Jules Berry , French actor
  • May 23, 1883 : Douglas Fairbanks , American actor
  • December 16, 1883 : Max Linder , French actor and director
  • March 22, 1884 : Lyda Borelli , Italian actress
  • June 15, 1884 : Harry Langdon , American actor
  • July 4, 1885 : Louis B. Mayer
  • January 2, 1885 : Marcel André , French actor
  • February 21, 1885 : French writer, actor and director Sacha Guitry
  • March 1, 1885 : Lionel Atwill , British actor
  • April 1, 1885 : Wallace Beery , American actor
  • April 12, 1885 : Jacques Baumer , French actor
  • July 29, 1885 : Theda Bara , American actress, first vamp of the cinema
  • May 26, 1886 : Al Jolson , American singer and actor
  • August 23, 1886 : Josette Andriot , French actress
  • January 6, 1887 : Berthe Bovy , French actress
  • January 11, 1887 : Monte Blue , American actor
  • March 11, 1887 : Raoul Walsh , American director
  • May 12, 1887 : Yvonne de Bray , French actress
  • June 1, 1887 : Clive Brook , British actor and director
  • September 29, 1887 : Billy Bevan , Australian actor
  • November 23, 1887 : Boris Karloff , British actor
  • December 23, 1887 : Eric Blore , British actor
  • December 24, 1887 : Louis Jouvet , French actor
  • February 19, 1888 : John G. Adolfi , director and American producer
  • September 21, 1888 : Lucien Baroux , French actor
  • February 24, 1889 : Suzanne Bianchetti , French actress
  • February 26, 1889 : Jacques Berlioz , French actor
  • March 29, 1889 : Warner Baxter , American actor
  • April 16, 1889 : Charlie Chaplin , British actor and director
  • July 5, 1889 : Jean Cocteau , French poet, writer and director
  • September 15, 1889 : Robert Benchley , American actor and screenwriter
  • October 25, 1889 : Abel Gance , director and French producer
1890s
  • February 18, 1890 : Edward Arnold , American actor
  • June 9, 1890 : Leslie Banks , British actor
  • June 16, 1890 : Stan Laurel , British actor
  • October 7, 1890 : René Bergeron , French actor
  • October 14, 1890 : Louis Delluc , French filmmaker
  • January 1, 1891 : Charles Bickford , American actor
  • March 28, 1891 : Raymond Aimos , French actor
  • April 20, 1891 : Thomy Bourdelle , French actor
  • September 22, 1891 : Hans Albers , German actor
  • October 24, 1891 : Pierre Bertin , French actor
  • January 6, 1892 : Lucienne Bogaert , French actress
  • January 18, 1892 : Oliver Hardy , American actor
  • April 8, 1892 : Mary Pickford , actress and Canadian producer
  • April 11, 1892 : Francesca Bertini , Italian actress
  • June 30, 1892 : Pierre Blanchar , French actor and director
  • July 28, 1892 : Joe E. Brown , American actor
  • March 12, 1893 : Jean Brochard , French actor
  • March 14, 1893 : Pierre Alcover , French actor
  • April 20, 1893 : Harold Lloyd , American actor
  • May 21, 1893 : Armand Bernard , French actor
  • June 8, 1893 : Gaby Morlay , French actress
  • February 1, 1894 : John Ford , American director
  • February 8, 1894 : King Vidor , American director
  • July 25, 1894 : Walter Brennan , American actor
  • September 15, 1894 : Jean Renoir , French director

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